John XXIII…

…judges Francis’ idea on ‘diversified unity’

  • Unless the faithful remain bound together by the same ties of faith they cannot be perfectly united with the Divine Redeemer

But mark this well: unless the faithful remain bound together by the same ties of virtue, worship and sacrament, and all hold fast to the same belief, they cannot be perfectly united with the Divine Redeemer, the universal Head, so as to form with Him one visible and living body. “A whole faith,” says St. Leo, “a true faith, is a mighty bulwark. No one can add anything to it, no one can take anything away from it; for unless it is one, it is no faith at all” (Serm. 24, 6). To preserve this unity of faith, all teachers of divine truths—all bishops, that is—must necessarily speak with one mind and one voice. (John XXIII. Encyclical Aeterna Dei sapientia, no. 4041, November 11, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on union in the Catholic Church

  • Unless the faithful remain bound together by the same ties of virtue, worship and sacrament they cannot be perfectly united with the Divine Redeemer

But mark this well: unless the faithful remain bound together by the same ties of virtue, worship and sacrament, and all hold fast to the same belief, they cannot be perfectly united with the Divine Redeemer, the universal Head, so as to form with Him one visible and living body. “A whole faith,” says St. Leo, “a true faith, is a mighty bulwark. No one can add anything to it, no one can take anything away from it; for unless it is one, it is no faith at all.” To preserve this unity of faith, all teachers of divine truths—all bishops, that is—must necessarily speak with one mind and one voice. (John XXIII. Encyclical Aeterna Dei sapientia, November 11, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on the role of the Church

  • Unfortunately, marginal to your activity are the neediest and the most contagious sick, who are the obstinate and rebellious sinners

You endeavour to alleviate the physical sufferings, but, we well know, you do not forget that, unfortunately, marginal to your activity are the neediest and the most contagious sick, who are the obstinate and rebellious sinners. […] The confusion that reigns in some sectors on this point demands the effort of all Christian souls of good sense to be inexorable and resolute in a patient and difficult exercise of true charity, and to not neglect an occasion to enlighten, call upon, correct and lift up. To play with fire is always harmful: et qui amat periculum in illo peribit (Sir 3:26). (John XXIII. Address to the delegates of the ‘Works of Mercy’ in Rome, February 21, 1960)

…judges Francis’ defense of the Jovinian heresy

  • Virginity is the virtue that dilates your heart for the most authentic, the greatest, and the most universal love that can be had on earth

In this variety of nuances there is still an unmistakable note, that all the varieties constitute the unity of consecrated souls, and it is precisely virginity. In this circumstance, we would like to make you feel, but above all in face of the whole world, the excellence and glory of virginity. It is the virtue that dilates your heart for the most authentic, the greatest, and the most universal love that can be had on earth: the service of Christ in souls. What you have sought is not an earthly love, nor a house of your own, nor the fulfillment of strictly personal tasks, all things which, although licit and just, could not satisfy the aspirations of your heart, but rather you have chosen the celestial Spouse, and the immense field of the Church. (John XXIII. Address to the women religious of Rome, First Diocesan Synod of Rome, January 29, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on the use of internet for catholic education

  • A piety which was felt as child, but not cared for in adolescence, results in a veritable shipwreck in the faith

A piety which was felt as a child, but not cared for in adolescence, often results unfortunately, in the youth who opens himself to the world, in a veritable shipwreck in the faith. This phenomenon, because of its gravity, attracts the serious analysis of any educator who is conscious of his mission. It is a principle of Catholic pedagogy that the essence consists in collaboration with divine grace for the formation of the true and perfect Christian. […] The adolescent is at the age in which he should make efforts on his own to discover his being and form his personality: it is the duty of his educators, especially his spiritual director to help him in this undertaking. Son of God, member of the Mystical Body of Christ, he has his proper place in the Church. This is how Saint John considers it when he speaks to adolescents: Scribo vobis, adulescentes, quoniam vicistis malignum (1Jn 2:13). The Church does not fail to recognize the riches which youth brings, and to foment their legitimate evolution and development. For this reason, from the most tender age, it puts so much interest in the task of their education in the life of faith, and at the same time in the formation of their conscience, together with learning the upright use of the conscience. (John XXIII. Message to the participants of the VII Inter-American Congress on Catholic Education, January 10, 1960)

  • The overall comportment in life needs to be oriented according to the Christian message

Intellectual catechesis will be of little efficacy unless accompanied by an education that considers not only the intelligence, but also the will and the heart of the adolescent: religion embraces the whole man; it is their overall comportment in life that needs to be oriented according to the Christian message by implementing a complete pedagogy of spiritual life so that the youth become aware of the correspondence that exists between the truths that they are taught to believe, and the interior aspirations which spring from their personality towards the ideals of justice, charity and moral rectitude. (John XXIII. Message to the participants of the VII Inter-American Congress on Catholic Education, January 10, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on interpersonal relationships no longer need to seek purity and perfection

  • Every home should be a school of virtues in imitation of Nazareth

Consequently, in earnest we desire that every home become, in imitation of that of Nazareth, a sanctuary of religiosity and a school of virtues. (John XXIII. Message to the National Congress of the family in Spain, February 10, 1959)

  • The Holy Family invites us to consider the greatness of the task that the Church expects of families

This is the first teaching of Nazareth: holy families, blessed love, domestic virtues which overflow from the warmth of ardent hearts, and generous and good wills. The family is the first exercise of Christian life, the first school of fortitude and of sacrifice, of morality and of abnegation. It is the greenhouse of priestly and religious vocations, and also of apostolic undertakings for the Christian laity; the parish acquires a new dignity and an unmistakable physiognomy, and is enriched with new vital sap of regenerated souls who live in the grace of the Lord. The Ecumenical Council will also be a solemn convocation to the grandeur of the family and to the duties inherent to them. Receive, dear sons and daughters, as the first fruits of Our words which invite you to consider ever more deeply, in the light of the Holy Family, the greatness of the task that the Church expects of you. (John XXIII. Address October 4, 1962)

…judges Francis’ idea on Christian marriage realized in a partial and analogous way by adultery

  • The transmission of human life is subject to the all-holy, immutable laws of God

We must solemnly proclaim that human life is transmitted by means of the family, and the family is based upon a marriage which is one and indissoluble and, with respect to Christians, raised to the dignity of a sacrament. The transmission of human life is the result of a personal and conscious act, and, as such, is subject to the all-holy, inviolable and immutable laws of God, which no man may ignore or disobey. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et magistra, no. 193, May 15, 1961)

  • Speak with simplicity; speak with clarity! Darkness envelopes human souls and institutions – The words that make up our sermons are not our own, but those of the celestial doctrine

“Wherever the ignorance of religious truths extends, customs become lax” (Saint Bernardino of Siena). Speak, then, with simplicity; speak with clarity; illuminate, illuminate. After twenty centuries of Christian light, darkness still envelopes many human souls and institutions. And one must not have illusions. The grave task that the Divine Founder confided to his Church will demand an attention and application which are increasingly fitted to the needs of the times. The words that make up our sermons are not our own, but those of the celestial doctrine. In the work of illuminating souls, confided to us, our members will tire and out and our tongue dry out before we fulfill the task perfectly. (John XXIII. Address to the lenten pilgrims of Rome, February 19, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Church’s rules on matrimony being ‘overly rigid’

  • The family is founded upon marriage, which is freely contracted, one and indissoluble

Human beings have also the right to choose for themselves the kind of life which appeals to them: whether it is to found a family—in the founding of which both the man and the woman enjoy equal rights and duties—or to embrace the priesthood or the religious life. The family, founded upon marriage freely contracted, one and indissoluble, must be regarded as the natural, primary cell of human society. The interests of the family, therefore, must be taken very specially into consideration in social and economic affairs, as well as in the spheres of faith and morals. For all of these have to do with strengthening the family and assisting it in the fulfilment of its mission. Of course, the support and education of children is a right which belongs primarily to the parents. (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in terris, no. 15–17, April 11, 1963)

…judges Francis’ idea on zeal for the liturgy, doctrine and prestige of the Church

  • The needy are well cared-for when the Catholics organize their efforts

It is, above all, necessary to coordinate charitable activity on the international level, so that the solidarity of Catholics toward their needy brethren, most especially those affected by sudden catastrophe, can present themselves with speed and efficacy, and this is your irreplaceable task. In organizing, utilizing the appropriate technical means, the charity of the Catholics on a world scale, you assist the Church, constantly present and working wherever someone suffers in the world. (John XXIII. Address to the delegates of Caritas International, July 27, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on the role of women in the Church

  • In the Church there exists a clear distinction between the clergy and the people

The Holy Church of Christ is a perfect society in which each of the members that makes it up partakes in all of the benefits, all of the spiritual treasures of its sacred patrimony of doctrine and grace. And since all this refers to a living organism, everything in it is designed with such skill and ordering of the elements and instruments in such a way as to correspond to supernatural ends, which touch earthly things while adhering to the eternal heavens. This entails a clear distinction between the clergy and the people, distinction but not a separation. To the clergy pertains the function of direction and sanctification of the entire social body, for which it receives a calling, a divine vocation, a consecration. Also the Christian people are invited to the same participation of divine grace. But the distribution of this grace was confided by the

Lord Jesus, Word of God, made Man for the salvation of the entire world, to the priesthood, to the priestly order instituted specifically to exercise this most high function of mediation between heaven and earth, for the good and sanctification of the people that took their name from Christ. (John XXIII. Address for the solemn inauguration of the First Diocesan Synod of Rome, January 24, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on John the Baptist doubting the Messiah

  • The Church recommends special respect and veneration for Saint John the Baptist

In the praying life of the universal Church the first place is held by the adoration and glorification of the August Most Blessed Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. There follows, at a due liturgical distance, and with the very light of the Trinity Itself, the veneration of Mary the Mother of Christ our Savior, and, by this title, our powerful and beloved Mother. In the ancient prayers, Saint Michael is named next, prince of the countless and invisible heavenly hosts. But the first figure of a man, with body and soul, that comes before our gaze, for our respect and veneration, is Saint John the Baptist, sole and delayed flower of Zachary and Elizabeth, called to prepare, through the voice of this unexpected son, the celestial message and the invitation to the universal generation that the prophets had promised, for centuries. (John XXIII. Allocution on the second vespers of the Feast of Saint John, June 24, 1962)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Church’s moral teaching

  • Where the same law of justice is not adhered to by all, men cannot hope to come to open and full agreement on vital issues

The root cause of so much mistrust is the presence of ideological differences between nations, and more especially between their rulers. There are some indeed who go so far as to deny the existence of a moral order which is transcendent, absolute, universal and equally binding upon all. And where the same law of justice is not adhered to by all, men cannot hope to come to open and full agreement on vital issues. Yes, both sides speak of justice and the demands of justice, but these words frequently take on different or opposite meanings according to which side uses them. […] But the moral order has no existence except in God; cut off from God it must necessarily disintegrate. Moreover, man is not just a material organism. He consists also of spirit; he is endowed with reason and freedom. He demands, therefore, a moral and religious order; and it is this order – and not considerations of a purely extraneous, material order – which has the greatest validity in the solution of problems relating to his life as an individual and as a member of society, and problems concerning individual states and their inter-relations. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et magistra, no. 205–206, May 15, 1961)

  • Social relationships must adhere to principles within the framework of the moral order, as the indispensable prerequisite for the fulfillment of the rights and obligations of social life

So long as social relationships do in fact adhere to these principles within the framework of the moral order, their extension does not necessarily mean that individual citizens will be gravely discriminated against or excessively burdened. On the contrary, we can hope that they will help him to develop and perfect his own personal talents, and lead to that organic reconstruction of society which Our Predecessor Pius XI advocated in his encyclical Quadragesimo Anno as the indispensable prerequisite for the fulfilment of the rights and obligations of social life. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 67, May 15, 1961)

  • The root cause of problems today: many deny the existence of a moral order which is transcendent, absolute, universal and equally binding upon all

The root cause of so much mistrust is the presence of ideological differences between nations, and more especially between their rulers. There are some indeed who go so far as to deny the existence of a moral order which is transcendent, absolute, universal and equally binding upon all. And where the same law of justice is not adhered to by all, men cannot hope to come to open and full agreement on vital issues. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 205, May 15, 1961)

  • The human being demands a moral and religious order as the greatest validity in the solution of individual and social problems

But the moral order has no existence except in God; cut off from God it must necessarily disintegrate. Moreover, man is not just a material organism. He consists also of spirit; he is endowed with reason and freedom. He demands, therefore, a moral and religious order; and it is this order – and not considerations of a purely extraneous, material order – which has the greatest validity in the solution of problems relating to his life as an individual and as a member of society, and problems concerning individual states and their inter-relations. (John XXIII. Encyclica Mater et Magistra, no. 208, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on obtaining spiritual fruits in other religions

  • The absurd proposition that one religion is just as good as another is a serious injustice

Some men, indeed do not attack the truth wilfully, but work in heedless disregard of it. They act as though God had given us intellects for some purpose other than the pursuit and attainment of truth. This mistaken sort of action leads directly to that absurd proposition: one religion is just as good as another, for there is no distinction here between truth and falsehood. ‘This attitude,’ to quote Pope Leo again, ‘is directed to the destruction of all religions, but particularly the Catholic faith, which cannot be placed on a level with other religions without serious injustice, since it alone is true’ (Humanum genus (1884)). (John XXIII. Encyclical Ad Petri cathedram, no. 17, June 29, 1959)

…judges Francis’ idea on Jesus asking forgiveness from his parents

  • Jesus is always found in the midst of men: Magister vester unus est Christus

Jesus is twelve years old now. Mary and Joseph are accompanying Him to Jerusalem for the ritual prayer. Suddenly, He disappears from the sight of His loving and vigilant parents. There is great anxiety in the three day search. Pain follows the joy on finding Him, there, within the halls that surround the temple, deep in discussion with the doctors of the Law. And with what significant words Saint Luke meticulously and accurately presents this scene to us! Thus He is found, sitting in the midst of the doctors in the Temple, audientem illos et interroganted eos, ‘listening to them and asking them questions’ (Lk 2:46). A meeting with the doctors, at that time, was of great importance; it meant everything: knowledge, wisdom and practical counsels of living in the light of the Old Testament. […] Christ, like a light from beyond, is never absent: He is found everywhere in the midst of men — where He belongs: Magister vester unus est Christus (Mt 23:10). (John XXIII. Little collection of devout meditations on the mysteries of the Rosary, no. 5, September 29, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on proclaiming the Gospel only with gentleness

  • Hiding the truth is like a diabolical conjuration

Where does respect for the truth exist on this earth? Are we not, at times, and even very frequently, faced with an unabashed and insolent anti-Decalogue that has abolished the ‘no’, this ‘no’ that precedes the clear and precise formulation of the five commandments of God that come after ‘honor your father and your mother’? Is not contemporary life practically a studied practice against the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth commandments: ‘Thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not be impure, Thou shalt not rob, Thou shalt not bring up false witness?’ It is like a contemporary diabolical conjuration against the truth. And, yet, always valid and clear is the commandment of the divine law that Moses heard on the mountain: ‘You shalt not bear false witness against your neighbor’ (Ex 20:16; Deut 5:20). This commandment, as the others, remains in effect with all of its positive and negative consequences; the duty to say the truth, to be sincere, to be frank, that is, to conform the human spirit with the reality, as well as the sad possibility of lying, and the even sadder factor of hypocrisy, of calumny, that ends up clouding the truth. (John XXIII. Radio message for Christmas, December 22, 1960)

  • How strong and terrible is the commandment of never speaking falsely against your neighbor!

What is most important to retain and perceive is that the attitude to know the truth represents for man the sacred and very grave responsibility to cooperate with the plan of the Creator, the Redeemer, the Glorifier. And this is worth even more for the Christian who carries, in virtue of the sacramental grace, the evident sign of his belonging to the family of God. Here is evident the dignity and the greater responsibility imposed upon man, and even more so upon each Christian, to honor this Son of God, Word made flesh, who gives life to both the human composite as well as the social order. […] In this light, how beautiful is the invitation to always speak the truth to your neighbor and how strong and terrible is the commandment of never speaking falsely against your neighbor!You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor’ (Ex 20:16). (John XXIII. Radio message for Christmas, December 22, 1960)

  • “Veritas Domini manet in aeternum”

We are living within two notions of human conviviality. On one hand, the reality of the world, sought for, desired and actuated just as in the plan of God. On the other hand – we do not hesitate to repeat it – the falsification of this same reality, facilitated by technology and the human artifice, modern and most modern. Faced with the quadruple ideal of thinking, honoring, speaking and acting in truth and the daily spectacle of the manifest or disguised betrayal of this ideal, our heart is not able to dominate its anguish and our voice trembles. Despite all and everyone, veritas Domini manet in aeternum ‘the truth of the Lord lasts forever’ (Ps 116:2) and wills to shine more and more before eyes and be heard by hearts. In many there has spread a little of the sensation that the times through which humanity is passing are dreadful. […] and despite the clamorous or astute voices of the most violent, we are very certain that the spiritual victory will be of Jesus Christ qui pendet a ligno. (John XXIII. Christmas Radio Address, December 22, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on the pastor

  • It is necessary to warn against imprudent actions

The priests of our time who – as is unfortunately the case in many regions – are often forced by the office they have assumed to live in the midst of a human society that is infected by a general looseness in morals and a spirit of unbridled lust. How often this phrase of Saint Thomas Aquinas is proved true: It is harder to lead a good life in the work of caring for souls, because of the external dangers involved (STh II-II, q. 184, a. 8) To this We might add the fact that they often feel themselves cut off from the society of others and that even the faithful to whose salvation they are dedicated do not understand them and offer them little help or support in their undertakings. We want to use this letter, Venerable Brethren, to exhort, again and again, all of them, and especially those who are working alone and in the midst of very serious dangers of this kind, to let their whole life, so to say, resound with the splendor of holy chastity; Saint Pius X had good reason to call this virtue the choicest adornment of our order (Exhortation Haerent animo, IV). Venerable Brethren, do all you can and spare no effort to see to it that the clergy entrusted to your care may enjoy living and working conditions that will best foster and be of service to their ardent zeal. This means that every effort should be exerted to eliminate the dangers that arise from too great an isolation, to issue timely warnings against unwise or imprudent actions, and last of all to check the dangers of idleness or of too much external activity. (John XXIII. Encyclical Sacerdotii nostri primordia, August 1, 1959)

…judges Francis’ idea on new forms of poverty

  • We must consider man’s personal dignity from the standpoint of divine revelation: ‘they are sons and friends of God by grace’

When, furthermore, we consider man’s personal dignity from the standpoint of divine revelation, inevitably our estimate of it is incomparably increased. Men have been ransomed by the blood of Jesus Christ. Grace has made them sons and friends of God, and heirs to eternal glory. (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in terries, no. 10, April 11, 1963)

  • Do not forget the neediest and the most contagious sick: sinners

You endeavor to alleviate the physical sufferings, but, we well know, you do not forget that, unfortunately, marginal to your activity are the neediest and the most contagious sick, who are the obstinate and rebellious sinners. […] The confusion that reigns in some sectors on this point demands the effort of all Christian souls of good sense to be inexorable and resolute in a patient and difficult exercise of true charity, and to not neglect an occasion to enlighten, call upon, correct and lift up. To play with fire is always harmful: et qui amat periculum in illo peribit (Sir 3:26). (John XXIII. Address to the delegates of the ‘Works of Mercy’ in Rome, February 21, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on the ‘Bread of Life’

  • Jesus nourishes our souls with his body and blood

According to the words of the Divine Master the Eucharist gives true life to men. ‘Amen, amen, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you do not have life within you’ and ‘Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life’ (Jn 6:53). These are very clear and solemn words. Jesus, with his body and blood nourishes our souls so that they live of his life. (John XXIII. Message to the National Eucharistic Congress of Brazil, April 2, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on private property

  • The right to private property is a guarantee of the dignity of the human person

As a further consequence of man’s nature, he has the right to the private ownership of property, including that of productive goods. This, as We have said elsewhere, is ‘a right which constitutes so efficacious a means of asserting one’s personality and exercising responsibility in every field, and an element of solidity and security for family life, and of greater peace and prosperity in the State’ (Mater et Magistra, AAS 53 (1961) 428). (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in Terris, no. 21, April 11, 1963)

  • The right to private property is a part of the natural order

What, then, of that social and economic principle so vigorously asserted and defended by Our predecessors: man’s natural right to own private property, including productive goods? Is this no longer operative today, or has it lost some of its validity in view of the economic conditions We have described above? This is the doubt that has arisen in many minds. There is no reason for such a doubt to persist. The right of private ownership of goods, including productive goods, has permanent validity. It is part of the natural order, which teaches that the individual is prior to society and society must be ordered to the good of the individual. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 108-109, May 15, 1961)

  • As Pius XII affirmed, the Church is striving after an important ethical-social end in defending the principle of private ownership

Accordingly, We make Our own the directive of Our Predecessor Pius XII: ‘In defending the principle of private ownership the Church is striving after an important ethico-social end. She does not intend merely to uphold the present condition of things as if it were an expression of the divine will, or to protect on principle the rich and plutocrats against the poor and indigent. . . The Church aims rather at securing that the institution of private property be such as it should be according to the plan of the divine Wisdom and the dispositions of Nature’ (Broadcast message, September 1, 1944). Hence private ownership must be considered as a guarantee of the essential freedom of the individual, and at the same time an indispensable element in a true social order. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 111, May 15, 1961)

  • It is strange that the innate character of the right to Private property should ever be called in question

Moreover, in recent years, as we have seen, the productive efficiency of many national economies has been increasing rapidly. Justice and fairness demand, therefore, that, within the limits of the common good, wages too shall increase. This means that workers are able to save more and thus acquire a certain amount of property of their own. In view of this it is strange that the innate character of a right which derives its force and validity from the fruitfulness of work should ever be called in question–a right which constitutes so efficacious a means of asserting one’s personality and exercising responsibility in every field, and an element of solidity and security for family life and of greater peace and prosperity in the State. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 112, May 15, 1961)

  • History and experience testify that in political regimes which do not recognize the rights of private property freedom is suppressed

Moreover, it would be quite useless to insist on free and personal initiative in the economic field, while at the same time withdrawing man’s right to dispose freely of the means indispensable to the achievement of such initiative. Further, history and experience testify that in those political regimes which do not recognize the rights of private ownership of goods, productive included, the exercise of freedom in almost every other direction is suppressed or stifled. This suggests, surely, that the exercise of freedom finds its guarantee and incentive in the right of ownership. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 109, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea that Koran is a book of peace

  • Peace can never be established except by the diligent observance of the divinely established order

Peace on Earth–which man throughout the ages has so longed for and sought after–can never be established, never guaranteed, except by the diligent observance of the divinely established order. (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in Terris, no. 1, April 11, 1963)

  • The world will never have peace till peace has found a home in the heart of each and every man

The world will never be the dwelling place of peace, till peace has found a home in the heart of each and every man, till every man preserves in himself the order ordained by God to be preserved. That is why Saint Augustine asks the question: ‘Does your mind desire the strength to gain the mastery over your passions? Let it submit to a greater power, and it will conquer all beneath it. And peace will be in you–true, sure, most ordered peace. What is that order? God as ruler of the mind; the mind as ruler of the body. Nothing could be more orderly’ (Miscellanea Augustiniana Saint Augustine, Sermones post Maurinos reperti, Rome, 1930, p. 633). (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in Terris, no. 165, April 11, 1963)

  • Relations between States must be regulated by the principle of freedom

Furthermore, relations between States must be regulated by the principle of freedom. This means that no country has the right to take any action that would constitute an unjust oppression of other countries, or an unwarranted interference in their affairs. (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in terris, no. 120, April 11, 1963)

  • Thousands of Our sons and brothers suffering years of bitter persecution in many lands, even those of an ancient Christian culture

Let men make all the technical and economic progress they can, there will be no peace nor justice in the world until they return to a sense of their dignity as creatures and sons of God, who is the first and final cause of all created being. Separated from God a man is but a monster, in himself and toward others; for the right ordering of human society presupposes the right ordering of man’s conscience with God, who is Himself the source of all justice, truth and love. Here is a spectacle for all the world to see: thousands of Our sons and brothers, whom We love so dearly, suffering years of bitter persecution in many lands, even those of an ancient Christian culture. And will not men who see clearly and compare the superior dignity of the persecuted with that refined barbarity of their oppressors, soon return to their senses, if indeed they have not already done so? (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 215-216, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea that spiritual direction is a charism of the laity

  • The direction of souls is one of the principle occupations of the priest

The altar, dear children, is the point of attraction for the eyes and the heart. It proclaims the characteristic connotation of our lives, and from thence is born in all its amplitude the specific occupations of the priest: confessions, the direction of souls, teaching of catechism, care of the sick, the diligent, prudent and patient contact with the faithful of all ages and conditions, in circumstances of doubt, sorrow, public calamities and misery. (John XXIII. Address to the clergy of Rome, no. 1, November 24, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on adulterine unions

  • The transmission of human life is only licit within Sacramental Marriage

We must solemnly proclaim that human life is transmitted by means of the family, and the family is based upon a marriage which is one and indissoluble and, with respect to Christians, raised to the dignity of a sacrament. The transmission of human life is the result of a personal and conscious act, and, as such, is subject to the all-holy, inviolable and immutable laws of God, which no man may ignore or disobey. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et magistra, no. 193, May 15, 1961)

  • Conjugal fidelity is the sacred duty of each of the spouses

    1. Catholics valiantly oppose any theory or preaching favoring divorce, and, most especially those who exercise any public authority, seeking by all means to efficaciously protect the good of indissolubility.
    2. Conjugal fidelity is the right and a sacred duty of each of the spouses. (John XXIII. Roman Synod, The articles of Title VIII, Of marriage, June 28, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on family

  • The family is founded upon marriage freely contracted, one and indissoluble

Human beings have also the right to choose for themselves the kind of life which appeals to them: whether it is to found a family—in the founding of which both the man and the woman enjoy equal rights and duties—or to embrace the priesthood or the religious life. The family, founded upon marriage freely contracted, one and indissoluble, must be regarded as the natural, primary cell of human society. The interests of the family, therefore, must be taken very specially into consideration in social and economic affairs, as well as in the spheres of faith and morals. For all of these have to do with strengthening the family and assisting it in the fulfilment of its mission. Of course, the support and education of children is a right which belongs primarily to the parents. (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in terris, no. 15-17, April 11, 1963)

  • From the holiness and indissolubility of Christian marriage, the harmonious unity of the family arises

We have called nations, their rulers, and all classes of society to harmonious unity. Now we sincerely urge families to achieve and strengthen this unity within themselves. For unless peace, unity, and concord are present in domestic society, how can they exist in civil society? This harmonious unity which should exist within the family circle rises from the holiness and indissolubility of Christian marriage. It is the basis of much of the order, progress, and prosperity of civil society. (John XXIII. Encyclical Ad Petri, no. 50-52, June 29, 1959)

…judges Francis’ idea on the social doctrine of the Church

  • The encyclical Rerum Novarum: an outstanding instance of charity in the Social Doctrine of the Church combining the precepts and practice of mutual love

Small wonder, then, that the Catholic Church, in imitation of Christ and in fulfilment of His commandment, relies not merely upon her teaching to hold aloft the torch of charity, but also upon her own widespread example. This has been her course now for nigh on two thousand years, from the early ministrations of her deacons right down to the present time. It is a charity which combines the precepts and practice of mutual love. It holds fast to the twofold aspect of Christ’s command to give, and summarizes the whole of the Church’s social teaching and activity. An outstanding instance of this social teaching and action carried on by the Church throughout the ages is undoubtedly that magnificent encyclical on the christianizing of the conditions of the working classes, Rerum Novarum, published seventy years ago by Our Predecessor, Leo XIII (Acta Leonis XIII, XI, 1891, pp. 97-144). (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 6-7, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on the formation of youth

  • The essence of education consists in the collaboration with divine grace

It is a principle of Catholic pedagogy that the essence of education consists in the collaboration with divine grace, for the formation of a true and perfect Christian. (John XXIII. Message to participants in the 7th Inter-American Congress on Catholic Education, January 10, 1960)

  • The overall comportment in life of youth needs to be oriented according to the Christian message

Intellectual catechesis will be of little efficacy unless accompanied by an education that considers not only the intelligence, but also the will and the heart of the adolescent: religion embraces the whole man; it is their overall comportment in life that needs to be oriented according to the Christian message by implementing a complete pedagogy of spiritual life so that the youth become aware of the correspondence that exists between the truths that they are taught to believe and the interior aspirations which spring from their personality towards the ideals of justice, charity and moral rectitude. (John XXIII. Message to participants in the 7th Inter-American Congress on Catholic Education, January 10, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on sects forming part of the Church

  • The faithful cannot be perfectly united with the Divine Redeemer except in the unity of faith

But mark this well: unless the faithful remain bound together by the same ties of virtue, worship and sacrament, and all hold fast to the same belief, they cannot be perfectly united with the Divine Redeemer, the universal Head, so as to form with Him one visible and living body. ‘A whole faith,’ says Saint Leo, ‘a true faith, is a mighty bulwark. No one can add anything to it, no one can take anything away from it; for unless it is one, it is no faith at all.To preserve this unity of faith, all teachers of divine truths—all bishops, that is—must necessarily speak with one mind and one voice. (John XXIII. Encyclical Aeterna Dei sapeientia, November11, 1961)

  • The Catholic Church is the only in the world to be divine and human at the same time

The Catholic Church is a unique institution in the world; divine and human at the same time, with twenty centuries of existence, however, always young, untiringly persues, through human activity, supernatural ends that easily escape superficial observers. (John XXIII. Address to the Foreign Press in Italy, October 24, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on selling off churches to feed the poor

  • The Lord himself had money-boxes in forming his Church

Even though We praise and extol this wonderful virtue of poverty so much, no one should conclude that We have any intention of giving Our approval to the unbecoming indigence and misery in which the ministers of the Lord are sometimes forced to live, both in cities and in remote rural areas. In this regard, when St. Bede the Venerable explained and commented on the words of the Lord on detachment from earthly things, he excluded possible incorrect interpretations of this passage with these words: ‘You must not think that this command was given with the intention of having the saints keep no money at all for their own use or for that of the poor (for we read that the Lord himself… had money-boxes in forming his Church…) but rather the idea was that this should not be the motive for serving God nor should justice be abandoned out of fear of suffering want’ (In Luc. Evang. IV, c. 12). (John XXIII. Encyclical Sacerdotii nostri primordia, no. 1, August 1, 1959)

…judges Francis’ idea on anticlericalism

  • Those who want to overthrow religion always try in their hatred to strike at priests first of all

This is not surprising; for those who hate the Church always show their hostility by trying to harm and deceive her sacred ministers; as the Cure of Ars himself admitted, those who want to overthrow religion always try in their hatred to strike at priests first of all. (John XXIII. Encyclical Sacerdotii nostri primordia, August 1, 1959)

…judges Francis’ idea on material charity

  • Do not forget those whose souls are sick!

 You endeavor to alleviate the physical sufferings, but, we well know, you do not forget that, unfortunately, marginal to your activity are the neediest and the most contagious sick, who are the obstinate and rebellious sinners. […] The confusion that reigns in some sectors on this point demands the effort of all Christian souls of good sense to be inexorable and resolute in a patient and difficult exercise of true charity, and to not neglect an occasion to enlighten, call upon, correct and lift up. To play with fire is always harmful: et qui amat periculum in illo peribit (Sir 3:26). (John XXIII. Speech to the delegates of the ‘Works of Mercy’ in Rome, February 21, 1960)

  • The solemn duty and truest function of the Church: to propagate the truth of Jesus Christ to the peoples

To propagate the truth of Jesus Christ is the truest function of the Church. Indeed, ‘it is the solemn duty of the Church to impart to… peoples, so far as possible, the outstanding blessings of her life and her teaching, from which a new social order should be derived, based on Christian principles’ (Encyclical letter Fidei donum). Therefore, in mission territories, the Church takes the most generous measures to encourage social welfare projects, to support welfare work for the poor, and to assist Christian communities and the peoples concerned. Care must be taken, however, not to clutter and obstruct the apostolic work of the missions with an excessive quantity of secular projects. Economic assistance must be limited to necessary undertakings which can be easily maintained and utilized, and to projects whose organization and administration can be easily transferred to the lay men and women of the particular nation, thus allowing the missionaries to devote themselves to their task of propagating the faith, and to other pursuits aimed directly at personal sanctification and eternal salvation. (John XXIII. Encyclical Princeps pastorum, no. 22, November 28, 1959)

…judges Francis’ idea that Christians should always humble themselves

  • The Catholic Church is Mother and Teacher of all nations

Mother and Teacher of all nations—such is the Catholic Church in the mind of her Founder, Jesus Christ; to hold the world in an embrace of love, that men, in every age, should find in her their own completeness in a higher order of living, and their ultimate salvation. She is ‘the pillar and ground of the truth’ (1Tim 3:15) To her was entrusted by her holy Founder the twofold task of giving life to her children and of teaching them and guiding them—both as individuals and as nations—with maternal care. Great is their dignity, a dignity which she has always guarded most zealously and held in the highest esteem. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 1, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on a horizontal Church

  • Peter’s divinely-given authority – He is put ahead of all those in charge of the Church

And since St. Leo regarded this indissoluble bond between Peter’s divinely-given authority and that of the other apostles as fundamental to Catholic unity, he was never tired of insisting that ‘this authority [to bind and to loose] was also passed on to the other apostles, and what was established by this decree found its way to all the princes of the Church. But there was good reason for committing what was intended for all to the care of one in particular. And so it was entrusted to Peter individually because the figure of Peter was to be put ahead of all those in charge of the Church’(cf. Serm. 83. 2 on the Feast of the Apostle Peter). (John XXIII. Encyclical Aeterna Dei sapientia, no. 43, November 11, 1961)

  • There is unity in the administration of the Catholic Church

That there is unity in the administration of the Catholic Church is evident. For as the faithful are subject to their priests, so are priests to their bishops, whom ‘the Holy Spirit has placed……to rule the Church of God.’(Acts 20.28) So, too, every bishop is subject to the Roman pontiff, the successor of Saint Peter, whom Christ called a rock and made the foundation of His Church. It was to Peter that Christ gave in a special way the power to bind and loose on earth, to strengthen his brethren, to feed the entire flock. (John XXIII. Encyclical Ad Petri cathedram, no. 73, June 29, 1959)

…judges Francis’ vision on the divorced who re-marry

  • St. John Vianney always had ‘poor sinners’ in his mind and before his eyes: ‘If we had the faith to see a soul in mortal sin, we would die of fright’

St. John M. Vianney always had ‘poor sinners,’ as he called them, in his mind and before his eyes, with the constant hope of seeing them turn back to God and weep for the sins they had committed. This was the object of all his thoughts and cares, and of the work that took up almost all his time and efforts. From his experience in the tribunal of Penance, in which he loosed the bonds of sin, he understood just how much malice there is in sin and what terrible devastation it wreaks in the souls of men. He used to paint it in hideous colors: ‘If we’—he asserted—‘had the faith to see a soul in mortal sin, we would die of fright.’ (John XXIII. Encyclical Sacerdotii nostri primordia, no. 90-91, August 1, 1950)

…judges Francis’ idea on offering rosaries

  • A priest must be much more careful than others to obey the Christ’s command: You must always pray

The neglect of some of these rules [fidelity to prayer] may often be the reason why certain churchmen are caught up in the whirl of external affairs, gradually lose their feeling for sacred things and finally fall into serious difficulties when they are shorn of all spiritual protection and enticed by the attractions of this earthly life. […] To use the words of Saint Pius X: ‘We are sure of this much… that a priest must be deeply devoted to the practice of prayer if he is to live up to his rank and fulfill his duties properly… For a priest must be much more careful than others to obey the command of Christ: You must always pray. Paul was only reaffirming this when he advised, as he did so often: Be constant in prayer, ever on the watch to give thanks; pray without ceasing’ (Haerent animo). And We are more than happy to adopt as Our own the words that Our immediate predecessor, Pius XII, offered priests as their password at the very beginning of his pontificate: ‘Pray, more and more, and pray more intensely’ (Discourse of June 24, 1939). (John XXIII. Encyclical Sacerdotii Nostri Primordia, no. 43-44, August 1, 1980)

  • The Rosary: a very commendable form of prayer and meditation

Among the pleasant recollections of Our younger days are the Encyclicals which Pope Leo XIII used to write to the whole Catholic world as the month of October drew near, in order to urge the faithful to devout recitation of Mary’s rosary during that month in particular (cf. Supremi Apostolatus, Superiore anno, Quamquam pluries, Octobri mense, Magnae Dei Matris, Laetitiae sanctae, lucunda semper, Adiutricem populi, Fidentem piumque, Augustissimae Virginis, Diuturni temporis). These Encyclicals had varied contents, but they were all very wise, vibrant with fresh inspiration, and directly relevant to the practice of the Christian life. In strong and persuasive terms they exhorted Catholics to pray to God in a spirit of faith through the intercession of Mary, His Virgin Mother, by reciting the holy rosary. For the rosary is a very commendable form of prayer and meditation. In saying it we weave a mystic garland of Ave Maria’s, Pater Noster’s, and Gloria Patri’s. And as we recite these vocal prayers, we meditate upon the principal mysteries of our religion; the Incarnation of Jesus Christ and the Redemption of the human race are proposed, one event after another, for our consideration. These pleasant memories of Our younger days have not faded or vanished as the years of Our life have passed. On the contrary, We want to declare in complete frankness and simplicity that the years have made Mary’s rosary all the dearer to Us. We never fail to recite it each day in its entirety and We intend to recite it with particular devotion during the coming month. (John XXIII. Encyclical Grata Recordatio, no. 1-3, September 26, 1959)

…judges Francis’ words that it was not an offense accepting the Cross in the form of a communist symbol

  • The opposition between communism and Christianity is fundamental

Pope Pius XI further emphasized the fundamental opposition between Communism and Christianity, and made it clear that no Catholic could subscribe even to moderate Socialism. The reason is that Socialism is founded on a doctrine of human society which is bounded by time and takes no account of any objective other than that of material well-being. Since, therefore, it proposes a form of social organization which aims solely at production, it places too severe a restraint on human liberty, at the same time flouting the true notion of social authority. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et magistra, no. 34, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ pro-communist ideas expressed in the Meetings with Popular Movements

  • Anyone who ventures to deny that there are differences among social classes contradicts the very laws of nature and God’s command

The harmonious unity which must be sought among peoples and nations also needs ever greater improvement among the various classes of individuals. Otherwise mutual antagonism and conflict can result, as we have already seen. And the next step brings rioting mobs, wanton destruction of property, and sometimes even bloodshed. Meanwhile public and private resources diminish and are stretched to the danger point.

On this point Pope Leo XIII made apt and appropriate comment: ‘God has commanded that there be differences of classes in the human community and that these classes, by friendly cooperation, work out a fair and mutual adjustment of their interests’ (Letter Permoti Nos, 1895). For it is quite clear that ‘as the symmetry of the human frame results from suitable arrangement of the various parts of the body, so in a body politic it is ordained by nature that… the classes should dwell in harmony and agreement, so as to maintain the balance of the body politic. Each needs the other: capital cannot do without labor, nor labor without capital. Their mutual agreement will result in the splendor of right order’ (Encyclical Rerum novarum, 1891). Anyone, therefore, who ventures to deny that there are differences among social classes contradicts the very laws of nature. Indeed, whoever opposes peaceful and necessary cooperation among the social classes is attempting, beyond doubt, to disrupt and divide human society; he menaces and does serious injury to private interests and the public welfare. As Our predecessor, Pius XII wisely said, ‘In a nation that is worthy of the name, inequalities among the social classes present few or no obstacles to their union in common brotherhood. We refer, of course, to those inequalities which result not from human caprice but from the nature of things—inequalities having to do with intellectual and spiritual growth, with economic facts, with differences in individual circumstances, within, of course, the limits prescribed by justice and mutual charity’ (Christmas Message, 1944). (John XXIII. Encyclical Ad Petri cathedram, no.36-39, June 29, 1959)

…judges Francis’ ideas on faith being revolutionary

  • The formation of youth requires piety in order to combat indiscipline

We advise young people, also, to contemplate attentively this glorious Saint [Saint Gabriel of the Sorrowful Mother] as he, for the short time he lived on earth, experienced and overcame his own difficulties. This exhortation is all the more opportune for young people, given that young people are, by nature, adverse to discipline, lovers of pleasure, forgetful of the things of the other life (Col 3:1), and too avid for material goods. Although Saint Gabriel, in his life in the word, was not withdrawn from diversions, nonetheless, they never separated him from God. Through his example, our dear young people will learn to ‘serve the Lord with gladness’ (cf. Psalm 99:1), at the same time as ordering the affections of the heart and the actions of life according to the norms of modesty and temperance. May he be for them, in a special way, teacher of integrity of customs today, when so many dangers threaten the virtue of chastity, and on all sides there arise incentives to evil, through the progress of modern technology. Therefore, to be victorious in the fight for chastity, honor with lively piety the Immaculate Virgin Mary and confide in her protection, as Saint Gabriel did. (John XXIII. Letter to the Superior General of the Passionists on the Centenary of Saint Gabriel of the Sorrowful Mother, February 27, 1962)

 …judges Francis’ words in his first appearance

  • All bishops are subject to the Roman pontiff

That there is unity in the administration of the Catholic Church is evident. For as the faithful are subject to their priests, so are priests to their bishops, whom ‘the Holy Spirit has placed……to rule the Church of God’(Acts 20:28). So, too, every bishop is subject to the Roman pontiff, the successor of Saint Peter, whom Christ called a rock and made the foundation of His Church. It was to Peter that Christ gave in a special way the power to bind and loose on earth, to strengthen his brethren, to feed the entire flock. (John XXIII. Encyclical Ad Petri cathedram, June 29, 1959)

…judges Francis’ ideas present in Laudate Si

  • God said ‘Fill the earth, and subdue it.’ Nothing is said about destroying nature. On the contrary, it must be brought into the service of human life

Genesis relates how God gave two commandments to our first parents: to transmit human life—‘Increase and multiply’ (Gen. 1:28)—and to bring nature into their service—‘Fill the earth, and subdue it’. These two commandments are complementary. Nothing is said in the second of these commandments about destroying nature. On the contrary, it must be brought into the service of human life. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, nos. 196-197, May 15, 1961)

  • The risk of looking for solutions against the divinely established moral order, for example, to try to address the food-supply problem by violating the laws of human procreation

The resources which God in His goodness and wisdom has implanted in Nature are well-nigh inexhaustible, and He has at the same time given man the intelligence to discover ways and means of exploiting these resources for his own advantage and his own livelihood. Hence, the real solution of the problem is not to be found in expedients which offend against the divinely established moral order and which attack human life at its very source, but in a renewed scientific and technical effort on man’s part to deepen and extend his dominion over Nature. The progress of science and technology that has already been achieved opens up almost limitless horizons in this held. […] We must solemnly proclaim that human life is transmitted by means of the family, and the family is based upon a marriage which is one and indissoluble and, with respect to Christians, raised to the dignity of a sacrament. The transmission of human life is the result of a personal and conscious act, and, as such, is subject to the all-holy, inviolable and immutable laws of God, which no man may ignore or disobey. He is not therefore permitted to use certain ways and means which are allowable in the propagation of plant and animal life. Human life is sacred—all men must recognize that fact. From its very inception it reveals the creating hand of God. Those who violate His laws not only offend the divine majesty and degrade themselves and humanity, they also sap the vitality of the political community of which they are members. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, nos. 189; 193-194, May 15, 1961)

  • A conception of ecology that appreciates the marvelous order placed by God in the world makes man realize his own greatness, as lord of creation, such that he can devise the means for harnessing natural forces for his own benefit as a gift received from God

Peace on Earth—which man throughout the ages has so longed for and sought after—can never be established, never guaranteed, except by the diligent observance of the divinely established order. That a marvelous order predominates in the world of living beings and in the forces of nature, is the plain lesson which the progress of modern research and the discoveries of technology teach us. And it is part of the greatness of man that he can appreciate that order, and devise the means for harnessing those forces for his own benefit. But what emerges first and foremost from the progress of scientific knowledge and the inventions of technology is the infinite greatness of God Himself, who created both man and the universe. Yes; out of nothing He made all things, and filled them with the fullness of His own wisdom and goodness. Hence, these are the words the holy psalmist used in praise of God: ‘O Lord, our Lord: how admirable is thy name in the whole earth!’ (Ps 8:1) And elsewhere he says: ‘How great are thy works, O Lord! Thou hast made all things in wisdom’ (Ps 103:24). Moreover, God created man ‘in His own image and likeness’ (cf. Gen 1:26), endowed him with intelligence and freedom, and made him lord of creation. All this the psalmist proclaims when he says: ‘Thou hast made him a little less than the angels: thou hast crowned him with glory and honor, and hast set him over the works of thy hands. Thou hast subjected all things under his feet’ (Ps 8:5-6). (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in Terris, nos. 1-3, April 11, 1963)

  • Only the moral order has the solution of problems relating to man’s life as an individual and as a member of society, both those concerning individual states and their inter-relations

The result is a vast expenditure of human energy and natural resources on projects which are disruptive of human society rather than beneficial to it; while a growing uneasiness gnaws at men’s hearts and makes them less responsive to the call of nobler enterprises. The root cause of so much mistrust is the presence of ideological differences between nations, and more especially between their rulers. There are some indeed who go so far as to deny the existence of a moral order which is transcendent, absolute, universal and equally binding upon all. And where the same law of justice is not adhered to by all, men cannot hope to come to open and full agreement on vital issues. […] Mutual trust among rulers of States cannot begin nor increase except by recognition of, and respect for, the moral order. But the moral order has no existence except in God; cut off from God it must necessarily disintegrate. Moreover, man is not just a material organism. He consists also of spirit; he is endowed with reason and freedom. He demands, therefore, a moral and religious order; and it is this order—and not considerations of a purely extraneous, material order—which has the greatest validity in the solution of problems relating to his life as an individual and as a member of society, and problems concerning individual states and their inter-relations. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, nos. 204-205; 207-208, May 15, 1961)

  • The disunity among individuals and among nations, which contrasts to the perfect order in the universe, are the consequence of a moral crisis, of the abandon of the immutable laws inscribed by God in man’s nature

And yet there is a disunity among individuals and among nations which is in striking contrast to this perfect order in the universe. One would think that the relationships that bind men together could only be governed by force. But the world’s Creator has stamped man’s inmost being with an order revealed to man by his conscience; and his conscience insists on his preserving it. Men ‘show the work of the law written in their hearts. Their conscience bears witness to them’ (Rom 2:15). And how could it be otherwise? All created being reflects the infinite wisdom of God. It reflects it all the more clearly, the higher it stands in the scale of perfection (cf. Ps 18:8-11). But the mischief is often caused by erroneous opinions. Many people think that the laws which govern man’s relations with the State are the same as those which regulate the blind, elemental forces of the universe. But it is not so; the laws which govern men are quite different. The Father of the universe has inscribed them in man’s nature, and that is where we must look for them; there and nowhere else. (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem en Terris, no. 4-6, April 11, 1963)

  • Human society must be considered as being primarily a spiritual reality – and not a naturalistic one, whose spiritual values should exert a guiding influence on the relations between humans in all spheres

And so, dearest sons and brothers, we must think of human society as being primarily a spiritual reality. By its means enlightened men can share their knowledge of the truth, can claim their rights and fulfill their duties, receive encouragement in their aspirations for the goods of the spirit, share their enjoyment of all the wholesome pleasures of the world, and strive continually to pass on to others all that is best in themselves and to make their own the spiritual riches of others. It is these spiritual values which exert a guiding influence on culture, economics, social institutions, political movements and forms, laws, and all the other components which go to make up the external community of men and its continual development. Now the order which prevails in human society is wholly incorporeal in nature. Its foundation is truth, and it must be brought into effect by justice. It needs to be animated and perfected by men’s love for one another, and, while preserving freedom intact, it must make for an equilibrium in society which is increasingly more human in character. But such an order—universal, absolute and immutable in its principles—finds its source in the true, personal and transcendent God. He is the first truth, the sovereign good, and as such the deepest source from which human society, if it is to be properly constituted, creative, and worthy of man’s dignity, draws its genuine vitality. This is what St. Thomas means when he says: ‘Human reason is the standard which measures the degree of goodness of the human will, and as such it derives from the eternal law, which is divine reason . . . Hence it is clear that the goodness of the human will depends much more on the eternal law than on human reason.’ (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in Terris, no. 36-38, April 11, 1963)

  • Men must conduct themselves in conformity with the precepts of the moral order, obeying the providential designs of God regarding salvation, integrating the principal spiritual values with those of science, technology and the professions

And yet even this must be reckoned insufficient to bring the relationships of daily life into conformity with a more human standard, based, as it must be, on truth, tempered by justice, motivated by mutual love, and holding fast to the practice of freedom. If these policies are really to become operative, men must first of all take the utmost care to conduct their various temporal activities in accordance with the laws which govern each and every such activity, observing the principles which correspond to their respective natures. Secondly, men’s actions must be made to conform with the precepts of the moral order. This means that their behavior must be such as to reflect their consciousness of exercising a personal right or performing a personal duty. Reason has a further demand to make. In obedience to the providential designs and commands of God respecting our salvation and neglecting the dictates of conscience, men must conduct themselves in their temporal activity in such a way as to effect a thorough integration of the principal spiritual values with those of science, technology and the professions. (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in Terris, nos. 149-150, April 11, 1963)

  • The frequent divorce between faith and practice in Christians – the root of the present crisis

In traditionally Christian States at the present time, civil institutions evince a high degree of scientific and technical progress and possess abundant machinery for the attainment of every kind of objective. And yet it must be owned that these institutions are often but slightly affected by Christian motives and a Christian spirit. One may well ask the reason for this, since the men who have largely contributed—and who are still contributing—to the creation of these institutions are men who are professed Christians, and who live their lives, at least in part, in accordance with the precepts of the gospels. In Our opinion the explanation lies in a certain cleavage between faith and practice. Their inner, spiritual unity must be restored, so that faith may be the light and love the motivating force of all their actions. We consider too that a further reason for this very frequent divorce between faith and practice in Christians is an inadequate education in Christian teaching and Christian morality. In many places the amount of energy devoted to the study of secular subjects is all too often out of pro portion to that devoted to the study of religion. Scientific training reaches a very high level, whereas religious training generally does not advance beyond the elementary stage. It is essential, therefore, that the instruction given to our young people be complete and continuous, and imparted in such a way that moral goodness and the cultivation of religious values may keep pace with scientific knowledge and continually advancing technical progress. (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in Terris, no. 151-153, April 11, 1963)

  • In relations with non-Catholics, Catholics bear themselves as Catholics, and must do nothing to compromise religion and morality

The principles We have set out in this document take their rise from the very nature of things. They derive, for the most part, from the consideration of man’s natural rights. Thus the putting of these principles into effect frequently involves extensive co-operation between Catholics and those Christians who are separated from this Apostolic See. It even involves the cooperation of Catholics with men who may not be Christians but who nevertheless are reasonable men, and men of natural moral integrity. ‘In such circumstances they must, of course, bear themselves as Catholics, and do nothing to compromise religion and morality. Yet at the same time they should show themselves animated by a spirit of understanding and unselfishness, ready to co-operate loyally in achieving objects which are good in themselves, or conducive to good’ (Mater et Magistra). It is always perfectly justifiable to distinguish between error as such and the person who falls into error—even in the case of men who err regarding the truth or are led astray as a result of their inadequate knowledge, in matters either of religion or of the highest ethical standards. A man who has fallen into error does not cease to be a man. He never forfeits his personal dignity; and that is something that must always be taken into account. Besides, there exists in man’s very nature an undying capacity to break through the barriers of error and seek the road to truth. God, in His great providence, is ever present with His aid. Today, maybe, a man lacks faith and turns aside into error; tomorrow, perhaps, illumined by God’s light, he may indeed embrace the truth. Catholics who, in order to achieve some external good, collaborate with unbelievers or with those who through error lack the fullness of faith in Christ, may possibly provide the occasion or even the incentive for their conversion to the truth. Again it is perfectly legitimate to make a clear distinction between a false philosophy of the nature, origin and purpose of men and the world, and economic, social, cultural, and political undertakings, even when such undertakings draw their origin and inspiration from that philosophy. True, the philosophic formula does not change once it has been set down in precise terms, but the undertakings clearly cannot avoid being influenced to a certain extent by the changing conditions in which they have to operate. (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in Terris, nos. 157-159, April 11, 1963)

  • Our concern is with the doctrine of the Catholic and Apostolic Church, whose light illumines, enkindles and enflames. Every age hears her warning voice, vibrant with heavenly wisdom, with effective remedies for the increasing needs of men, and the sorrows and anxieties of this present life

This era in which we live is in the grip of deadly errors; it is torn by deep disorders. But it is also an era which offers to those who work with the Church immense possibilities in the field of the apostolate. And therein lies our hope. Venerable Brethren and dear sons, We began with that wonderful Encyclical of Pope Leo, and passed in review before you the various problems of our modern social life. We have given principles and directives which We exhort you earnestly to think over, and now, for your part, to put into effect. Your courageous co-operation in this respect will surely help to bring about the realization of Christ’s Kingdom in this world, ‘a kingdom of truth and life; a kingdom of holiness and grace; a kingdom of justice, of love and of peace’ (The Preface of the feast of Christ the King), which assures the enjoyment of those heavenly blessings for which we were created and for which we long most ardently. For here Our concern is with the doctrine of the Catholic and Apostolic Church. She is the Mother and Teacher of all nations. Her light illumines, enkindles and enflames. No age but hears her warning voice, vibrant with heavenly wisdom. She is ever powerful to offer suitable, effective remedies for the increasing needs of men, and the sorrows and anxieties of this present life. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, nos. 260-262, May 15, 1961)

  • There will be no peace nor justice in the world until men return to a sense of their dignity as creatures and sons of God; separated from God a man is but a monster, in himself and toward others

The most fundamental modern error is that of imagining that man’s natural sense of religion is nothing more than the outcome of feeling or fantasy, to be eradicated from his soul as an anachronism and an obstacle to human progress. And yet this very need for religion reveals a man for what he is: a being created by God and tending always toward God. As we read in St. Augustine: ‘Lord, you have made us for yourself, and our hearts can find no rest until they rest in you’ (Confessions I, 1). Let men make all the technical and economic progress they can, there will be no peace nor justice in the world until they return to a sense of their dignity as creatures and sons of God, who is the first and final cause of all created being. Separated from God a man is but a monster, in himself and toward others; for the right ordering of human society presupposes the right ordering of man’s conscience with God, who is Himself the source of all justice, truth and love. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 214-215, May 15, 1961)

  • Scientific and technical progress: goods of this kind must be valued according to their true nature, as instruments used by man for the better attainment of his end in the natural and the supernatural order

In Our paternal care as universal Pastor of souls, We earnestly beg Our sons, immersed though they be in the business of this world, not to allow their consciences to sleep; not to lose sight of the true hierarchy of values. Certainly, the Church teaches—and has always taught—that scientific and technical progress and the resultant material well-being are good things and mark an important phase in human civilization. But the Church teaches, too, that goods of this kind must be valued according to their true nature: as instruments used by man for the better attainment of his end. They help to make him a better man, both in the natural and the supernatural order. May these warning words of the divine Master ever sound in men’s ears: ‘For what doth it profit a man, if he gain the whole world and suffer the loss of his own soul? Or what exchange shall a man give for his soul?’ (Mt 16:26) (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, nos. 245-247, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on Laudate Si

  • The Church constructs her social teaching on the principle that man is raised in the plan of Providence to the supernatural order

The permanent validity of the Catholic Church’s social teaching admits of no doubt. This teaching rests on one basic principle: individual human beings are the foundation, the cause and the end of every social institution. That is necessarily so, for men are by nature social beings. This fact must be recognized, as also the fact that they are raised in the plan of Providence to an order of reality which is above nature. On this basic principle, which guarantees the sacred dignity of the individual, the Church constructs her social teaching. She has formulated, particularly over the past hundred years, and through the efforts of a very well informed body of priests and laymen, a social doctrine which points out with clarity the sure way to social reconstruction. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 218-220, May 15, 1961)

  • The moral order has no existence except in God; cut off from God it must necessarily disintegrate

The root cause of so much mistrust is the presence of ideological differences between nations, and more especially between their rulers. There are some indeed who go so far as to deny the existence of a moral order which is transcendent, absolute, universal and equally binding upon all. And where the same law of justice is not adhered to by all, men cannot hope to come to open and full agreement on vital issues. Yes, both sides speak of justice and the demands of justice, but these words frequently take on different or opposite meanings according to which side uses them. […] But the moral order has no existence except in God; cut off from God it must necessarily disintegrate. Moreover, man is not just a material organism. He consists also of spirit; he is endowed with reason and freedom. He demands, therefore, a moral and religious order; and it is this order—and not considerations of a purely extraneous, material order—which has the greatest validity in the solution of problems relating to his life as an individual and as a member of society, and problems concerning individual states and their inter-relations. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, nos. 205-206; 208, May 15, 1961)

  • Christianity is the meeting-point of earth and heaven; the earthly existence and the eternal life

Christianity is the meeting-point of earth and heaven. It lays claim to the whole man, body and soul, intellect and will, inducing him to raise his mind above the changing conditions of this earthly existence and reach upwards for the eternal life of heaven, where one day he will find his unfailing happiness and peace. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 2, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on Communism

  • No Catholic can subscribe even to moderate Socialism – opposition between Communism and Christianity is fundamental

Pope Pius XI further emphasized the fundamental opposition between Communism and Christianity, and made it clear that no Catholic could subscribe even to moderate Socialism. The reason is that Socialism is founded on a doctrine of human society which is bounded by time and takes no account of any objective other than that of material well-being. Since, therefore, it proposes a form of social organization which aims solely at production, it places too severe a restraint on human liberty, at the same time flouting the true notion of social authority. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 34, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on equality as the source of justice and happiness

  • Whoever denies the differences among social classes contradicts the very laws of nature – whoever opposes their peaceful cooperation divides human society

The harmonious unity which must be sought among peoples and nations also needs ever greater improvement among the various classes of individuals. Otherwise mutual antagonism and conflict can result, as we have already seen. And the next step brings rioting mobs, wanton destruction of property, and sometimes even bloodshed. Meanwhile public and private resources diminish and are stretched to the danger point.
On this point Pope Leo XIII made apt and appropriate comment: ‘God has commanded that there be differences of classes in the human community and that these classes, by friendly cooperation, work out a fair and mutual adjustment of their interests’ (Letter Permoti Nos). For it is quite clear that ‘as the symmetry of the human frame results from suitable arrangement of the various parts of the body, so in a body politic it is ordained by nature that… the classes should dwell in harmony and agreement, so as to maintain the balance of the body politic. Each needs the other: capital cannot do without labor, nor labor without capital. Their mutual agreement will result in the splendor of right order’ (Encyclical letter Rerum novarum). Anyone, therefore, who ventures to deny that there are differences among social classes contradicts the very laws of nature. Indeed, whoever opposes peaceful and necessary cooperation among the social classes is attempting, beyond doubt, to disrupt and divide human society; he menaces and does serious injury to private interests and the public welfare. (John XXIII. Encyclical Ad Petri cathedram, June 29, 1959)

  • All classes should regulate their mutual relations in accordance with the principle of Christian brotherhood

Finally, both workers and employers should regulate their mutual relations in accordance with the principle of human solidarity and Christian brotherhood. Unrestricted competition in the liberal sense, and the Marxist creed of class warfare; are clearly contrary to Christian teaching and the nature of man. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 23, May 15, 1961)

  • Erroneous ideologies attempt to sow discord between social classes

Dear sons and daughters. It is here, in this splendor that emanates from the celestial model, that we must see what should be the attitude and disposition to execute and dedicate oneself to work, obligation and honor of the life of each man. Erroneous ideologies, exalting on one hand an uncontrolled liberty, and on the other the suppression of the personality, seek to strip the worker of his grandeur, reducing him to an instrument of conflict or abandoning him to his own devices; they seek to sow discord and conflict, in the confrontation between the different social classes; an attempt is finally made to separate the working masses from God – who is the only protector and defender of the humble, and from whom we receive life, movement and existence – as though the condition of the workers exonerates them from the duty of knowing, honoring and serving him. […] Dear sons and daughters, look confidently ahead, toward the path that opens up before you. The Church counts on you to spread, from the workplace, the doctrine and the peace of Christ. May work always be for you a noble mission of which only God can be the inspirer and recompense. Within the reciprocal relations of social life, may true charity, mutual respect, and the desire for cooperation reign: a familial and fraternal ambience according to the luminous teachings of the Epistle of Saint Paul read at mass today: ‘And whatever you do, in word or in deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him. Whatever you do, do from the heart, as for the Lord and not for others, knowing that you will receive from the Lord the due payment of the inheritance; be slaves of the Lord Christ.’ (John XXIII. Radio message to workers on the feast of Saint Joseph the Worker, May 1, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on religious liberty

  • Either men anchor themselves on Christ and His Church or they deliberately exclude themselves from the Church

Certain it is that the critical issues, the thorny problems that wait upon men’s solution, have remained the same for almost twenty centuries. And why? Because the whole of history and of life hinges on the person of Jesus Christ. Either men anchor themselves on Him and His Church, and thus enjoy the blessings of light and joy, right order and peace; or they live their lives apart from Him; many positively oppose Him, and deliberately exclude themselves from the Church. The result can only be confusion in their lives, bitterness in their relations with one another, and the savage threat of war. (John XXIII. Address on the occasion of the solemn opening of Vatican Council II, October 11, 1962)

…judges Francis’ idea on the multiplication of the loaves

  • With the multiplication of the loaves, Christ desired to manifest his power to the multitudes that followed him

But thanks to the multiplication of indispensible material nourishment, Christ desired, twice in his mortal life, to manifest his power to the crowds that followed him. And he employed the miracle in order to direct spirits toward spiritual realities, but not failing to first of all satiate the famished bodies. (John XXIII. Address to the participants of the 10th International FAO Conference, May 3, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on the formation of consciences

  • The light of the Church illumines, enkindles and enflames

For here Our concern is with the doctrine of the Catholic and Apostolic Church. She is the Mother and Teacher of all nations. Her light illumines, enkindles and enflames. No age but hears her warning voice, vibrant with heavenly wisdom. She is ever powerful to offer suitable, effective remedies for the increasing needs of men, and the sorrows and anxieties of this present life. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 262, May 15, 1961)

  • To the Church was entrusted the task by her holy Founder of teaching her children and guiding them

She is ‘the pillar and ground of the truth’ (Cf. 1Tim. 3:15). To her was entrusted by her holy Founder the twofold task of giving life to her children and of teaching them and guiding them—both as individuals and as nations—with maternal care. Great is their dignity, a dignity which she has always guarded most zealously and held in the highest esteem. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 262, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on contemplative life

  • The primacy in the service of God corresponds to the cloistered religious

From here We are pleased to send an especially paternal greeting to Our dear daughters, who the cloistered life retains in each one of the houses in Rome and the world. To the cloistered religious corresponds, in fact, the primacy in the service of God, which is unceasing prayer, absolute detachment from everything and everyone, love of sacrifice, expiation for the sins of the world. (John XXIII. Address to the women religious of Rome, First Diocesan Synod of Rome, January 29, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on the origin of the Psalms

  • An atmosphere of Catholicism emanates from the Divine Office

It is a great happiness for every priest to feel, while reciting the Divine Office, pleasantly elevated by the atmosphere of Catholicism and universality that emanates from its pages, where all shines and all sings. For along with the Psalms – which are a true joy, a wise counsel and a suave rest for the spirit – other passages from the Old Testament are combined, as well as the fertile doctrine of the four Gospels, the incomparable sublimity of the Pauline letters and other writings of the New Testament. All of this is contained in the Breviary, inexhaustible and unlimited font of light and grace. (John XXIII. Apostolic Exhortation Sacrae Laudis, January 6, 1962)

…judges Francis’ idea on ‘culture of encounter’

  • Catechesis consists in transmitting the patrimony of the Church to others

The glorification of today [of Maria Berila Boscardin] has also a premise for the study of catechism, which engraves in the innocent soul the love of true wisdom, and guards it for the conquests of maturity. As we reminded recent pilgrimage of Bergamo, ‘the teaching of catechism is a daily sowing in each parish, family and school, that permits the innocent to be strengthened in the spirit of the grace of Christ, and holds in honor the patrimony, which is the true and pure essence of perfect Christianity.’ (John XXIII. Homily for the canonization of Maria Bertila Boscardin, May 11, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on God’s presence in a sinner’s life

  • Friends of God by supernatural grace

When, furthermore, we consider man’s personal dignity from the standpoint of divine revelation, inevitably our estimate of it is incomparably increased. Men have been ransomed by the blood of Jesus Christ. Gracehas made them sons and friends of God, and heirs to eternal glory. (John XXIII. Encyclical Pacem in terris, no. 10, April 10, 1963)

…judges Francis’ idea on who decides what is good and evil

  • Christ is the center of history, the absolute criteria of goodness

After almost twenty centuries, the gravest situations and problems that humanity has to face do not change; in fact, Christ always occupies central place in history and in life: men  either adhere to Him and His Church, and thus  enjoy light, goodness, right order, and the benefits of peace, or they live without Him or fighting against Him, and deliberately remain outside His Church, and so among them there is confusion, mutual relations become difficult, and the danger of bloody wars looms over them. (John XXIII. Address on the solemn opening of the Second Vatican Council, October 11, 1962)

…judges Francis’ idea on selling off churches to feed the poor

  • Supernatural spirit: distinguishing characteristic of the Church’s works of charity

What ensures your works of charity their true worth, gives so much glory to God, and merits predilections on earth and in heaven, is thesupernatural spirit. This is the characteristic that distinguishes it from all other charitable and philanthropic institutions, to which we are pleased to pay a tribute of respect and congratulations. We would like to believe that the soul of these institutions aspires to be in perfect harmony with the doctrine of the Lord’s Prayer and the Beatitudes.However,  while for civil institutions, assistance itself is the goal to be reached, for the Christian, it is a means, precious yes, but only a means to fulfill the double commandment of charity: ‘You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart ,and with all your soul and with all your heart. … You shall love your neighbor as yourself’ (Mt 22: 37-39). Through charity, the Christian comes closer to God, and intensely sanctifies his own soul. While commenting the Gospel of the Wedding at Cana, on occasion of the station in Santo Spirito in Sassia, on the first Sunday after the Octave of the Epiphany in 1208, Our former, glorious predecessor Innocent III, using an agreeably allegorical form, affirmed: ‘Certainly, if a work of mercy is not accompanied by a sentiment of charity, it helps, it is true, the one who receives it, but it is not of profit to the one who practices it. And so then it is only water and not wine; because, as the Apostle says ‘If I give away all I have, but have not love, I gain nothing.’ (1Cor 13:3). On the contrary, if mercy proceeds from charity, then the water turns into wine, because the action of charity transforms into warmth the heart which was cold, makes delectable that which was insipid, and luminous that which was dark; In this way, the water is transformed morally into wine; and that which is naturally good, becomes even better, to the point of meriting the eternal reward.’ (John XXIII. Address to the delegates of the Works of Mercy of Rome, February 21, 1960)

…judges Francis’ idea on responsible parenthood

  • The transmission of human life is sacred – it is not permitted to use certain means which are allowable in the propagation of plant and animal life

The transmission of human life is the result of a personal and conscious act, and, as such, is subject to the all-holy, inviolable and immutable laws of God, which no man may ignore or disobey. He is not therefore permitted to use certain ways and means which are allowable in the propagation of plant and animal life. Human life is sacred—all men must recognize that fact. From its very inception it reveals the creating hand of God. Those who violate His laws not only offend the divine majesty and degrade themselves and humanity, they also sap the vitality of the political community of which they are members. (John XXIII. Encyclical Mater et Magistra, no. 193-194, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Pope

  • Unrestricted power to bind and loose

That there is unity in the administration of the Catholic Church is evident. For as the faithful are subject to their priests, so are priests to their bishops, whom ‘the Holy Spirit has placed……to rule the Church of God’ (Acts 20:28). So, too, every bishop is subject to the Roman pontiff, the successor of Saint Peter, whom Christ called a rock and made the foundation of His Church. (Mt 16:18) It was to Peter that Christ gave in a special way the power to bind and loose on earth, (Mt 16:19) to strengthen his brethren, (Lk 22:32) to feed the entire flock. (Jn 21:15-17) (John XXIII. Encyclical Ad Petri Cathedram, June 29, 1959)

…judges Francis’ idea on happiness

  • He who seeks true joy must flee from sin

He who seeks the joys of the Lord Jesus and his Mother, must walk uprightly along the good path, without vacillations or compromises; flee from sin, origin of all unhappiness and inequity, even material ones; and work toward the good: that its, practice charity, the works of mercy, justice, honesty – and all of this within the splendorous light of the Eucharist, which should suavely permeate all minds and wills. Only in this way does man possess interior happiness, the true peace. (John XXIII, Radio Message to the City of Turin, March 27, 1960)

  • Sanctity is a font of happiness

This is all: know how to sanctify oneself and sacrifice oneself with Christ and for love of Christ. All the centuries are open to the spray of sanctity, which alone is the font of true happiness. (John XXIII, Homily for the Beatification of Father Inocencio Berzo, November 12, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea on Ascetism and silence in the Spiritual Exercises

  • He who does not seek mortification puts his eternal salvation at serious risk

Jesus Christ taught us self-discipline and self-denial when He said: ‘If anyone wishes to come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross daily and follow me’ (Lk 9:23). Yet there are many people, alas, who join instead the immoderate quest for earthly pleasures, thus debasing and weakening the nobler powers of the human spirit. It is all the more necessary, therefore, for Christians to repudiate this unworthy way of life which gives frequent rein to the turbulent emotions of the soul and seriously endangers its eternal salvation. They must repudiate it with all the energy and courage displayed by the martyrs and those heroic men and women who have been the glory of the Church in every age of her history. (John XXIII, Encyclical Paenitentiam Agere, no. 36, July 1, 1962)

  • The Gospel demands an intense mortification of the passions among Christians

But we must remind you here of an important truth: the Christian conception of life demands of all — whether highborn or lowly — a spirit of moderation and sacrifice. That is what God calls us to by His grace. There is, alas, a spirit of hedonism abroad today which beguiles men into thinking that life is nothing more than the quest for pleasure and the satisfaction of human passions. This attitude is disastrous. Its evil effects on soul and body are undeniable. Even on the natural level temperance and simplicity of life are the dictates of sound policy. On the supernatural level, the Gospels and the whole ascetic tradition of the Church require a sense of mortification and penance which assures the rule of the spirit over the flesh. (John XXIII, Encyclical Mater et Magistra, nos. 234-235, May 15, 1961)

…judges Francis’ idea of the Roman Curia

  • Assiduous, prudent and faithful efforts

 Since we have mentioned the motives of happiness, we also cannot fail to mention the consolation we experienced during a visit undertaken in the last few days, to the seat of each one of the Dicastries of the Roman Curia. It has been very pleasing to us to see directly and clearly the invaluable collaboration that is rendered by a numerous group of specialized ecclesiastics, as well as some lay people; for the expediency of questions pertaining to the Government of the Church. This testimony of esteem and benevolence on our part, we believe to be a well deserved reward for assiduous, prudent and faithful efforts, which we have long known by experience. (John XXIII. Address in the Secret Consistory for the Creation of New Cardinals, January 8, 1960)

  • Necessary and attentive care

 Who is unaware of the necessary and attentive care with which the Roman Curia habitually examines the great and small problems that arise? (John XXIII. Address to Venetian pilgrims, May 8, 1962)

…judges Francis’ ideas on being children of God

  • It is a Serious Injustice to Place the Catholic Church on a Level with Other Religions

 Some men, indeed do not attack the truth willfully, but work in heedless disregard of it. They act as though God had given us intellects for some purpose other than the pursuit and attainment of truth. This mistaken sort of action leads directly to that absurd proposition: one religion is just as good as another, for there is no distinction here between truth and falsehood.  “This attitude”, to quote Pope Leo again, “is directed to the destruction of all religions, but particularly the Catholic faith, which cannot be placed on a level with other religions without serious injustice, since it alone is true”. Moreover, to contend that there is nothing to choose between contradictories and among contraries can lead only to this fatal conclusion: a reluctance to accept any religion either in theory or practice. (John XXIII. Encyclical Ad Petri Cathedram, n.17)

…judges Francis’ idea on whether the Lord always Pardons

  • Serious sins attract the chastisements of God

He who is already a member of Christ must learn of necessity to keep a rein upon himself. Only so will he be able to drive away the enemy of his soul and keep his baptismal innocence unsullied, or regain God’s grace when it is lost by sin. To become a member of Holy Church by baptism is to be clothed in the beauty with which Christ adorns His beloved Bride. “Christ loved the Church and delivered Himself up for her; that he might sanctify her, cleansing her in the bath of water by means of the word of life; in order that he might present to himself the Church in all her glory, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she might be holy and without blemish.” (Eph 5:26-27). This being so, well may those sinners who have stained the white robe of their sacred baptism fear the just punishments of God. Their remedy is “to wash their robes in the blood of the Lamb” (Apoc 7: 14)—to restore themselves to their former splendor in the sacrament of Penance—and to school themselves in the practice of Christian virtue.  (John XXIII. Encylical Paenitentiam Agere, On the Need for the Practice of Interior and Exterior Penance, July1, 1962) 

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