17 – At the Final Judgment, Jesus Christ will be our advocate and not our judge

The contemplation of the imposing drama of the Last Judgment has always been of immense benefit to the faithful; and even in our days, it’s an efficacious element for awakening consciences and calling to conversion. A topic that appears with clarity and frequency in the Sacred Scriptures, the Last Judgment holds great pastoral value and is easily understandable by all. The Church condenses this truth of the faith in the definitive and simple words that Catholics pray daily in the Creed: Christ will come ‘to judge the living and the dead.’ But… will Christ really come as just judge? Or as something else?


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Whenever we think of Christ’s return and of his final judgment, which will manifest to its ultimate consequences the good that each person has done or failed to do during his earthly life, we seem to find ourselves before a mystery which towers above us, which we fail even to imagine. A mystery which almost instinctively arouses a sense of fear in us, and perhaps even one of trepidation. If, however, we reflect well on this reality, it cannot but expand the heart of a Christian and come to constitute a cause of consolation and of trust. […] In that case, it is the Church as bride who, on behalf of all humanity and as its first fruits, addresses herself to Christ her Bridegroom, looking forward to be enfolded in his embrace: Jesus’ embrace, which is the fullness of life and the fullness of love. This is how Jesus embraces us. If we think of judgement in this perspective, all fear and hesitation fade and make room for expectation and deep joy: it will be the very moment when we will be judged finally ready to be clothed in Christ’s glory, as with a nuptial garment, to be led into the banquet, the image of full and definitive communion with God. A second reason for confidence is offered to us by the observation that, at the moment of judgement, we will not be left alone. In the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus himself foretells how, at the end of time, those who have followed him will take their place in glory, and judge with him (cf. Mt 19:28). The Apostle Paul then, writing to the community of Corinth, states: “Do you not know that the saints will judge the world?… How much more, matters pertaining to this life!” (1 Cor 6:2-3). How beautiful it is to know thatat that juncture, in addition to Christ, our Paraclete, our Advocate with the Father (cf. 1Jn 2:1), we will be able to count on the intercession and goodness of so many of our elder brothers and sisters who have gone before us on the journey of faith, who have offered their lives for us and who continue to love us ineffably! The saints already live in the sight of God, in the splendour of his glory praying for us who still live on earth. […] This means, then, that this final judgement is already in progress, it begins now over the course of our lives. Thus judgement is pronounced at every moment of life, as it sums up our faith in the salvation which is present and active in Christ, or of our unbelief, whereby we close in upon ourselves. But if we close ourselves to the love of Jesus, we condemn ourselves.
What consolation this certainty arouses in our hearts! The Church is truly a mother and, as a mother, she seeks her children’s good, especially of those who are furthest away and are afflicted, until she finds its fullness in the glorious body of Christ with all its members.
A further suggestion is offered to us by the Gospel of John, where it explicitly states that “God sent his Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through him. He who believes in him is not condemned; he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God” (Jn 3:17-18). This means, then, that this final judgement is already in progress, it begins now over the course of our lives. Thus judgement is pronounced at every moment of life, as it sums up our faith in the salvation which is present and active in Christ, or of our unbelief, whereby we close in upon ourselves. But if we close ourselves to the love of Jesus, we condemn ourselves. Salvation is to open oneself to Jesus, it is he who saves us. If we are sinners — and we all are — we ask him for forgiveness and if we go to him with the desire to be good, the Lord forgives us. But for this we must open ourselves to Jesus’ love, which is stronger than all else. Jesus’ love is great, Jesus’ love is merciful, Jesus’ love forgives. (General audience, December 11, 2013)
To the other group, to those who are closed within the rigidity of the law, who do not want to hear, Jesus said a lot; even uglier things than Stephen said. The same thing happened with the adulterous woman, who was a sinner. Each one of us enters into dialogue with Jesus and the victim of the hearts of stone: the adulterous. To those who wanted to stone her, Jesus only responds: “Look within yourselves.” And, today, we see this tenderness of Jesus: the testimony of obedience, the Great Witness, Jesus, who gave his life, he makes us see the tenderness of God in relation to us, toward our sins, and our weaknesses. We enter into this dialogue and ask for the grace that the Lord soften the rigid hearts of these people, those who are always closed within the Law and condemn everything that is outside of this Law. (Homily, Santa Marta, May 2, 2017English summary)
The figure that helps me understand the attitude of the Lord with the lost sheep is the comportment of the Lord with Judas. The most perfect lost sheep of the Gospel is Judas: a man who always, always had something bitter in his heart, something to criticize the others about, he was always distant. He did not know the sweetness of gratitude in living with all of the others. And, always, this sheep was not satisfied – Judas was not a satisfied man! – , he fled. He fled because he was a thief, and went out, alone. Others are impure, others… But they always escape because they have this darkness in their heart that separates them from the flock. And this double life, this double life that so many Christians, even – and I say this with sorrow, curates, bishops…And Judas was a bishop, one of the first bishops. The lost sheep. Poor him! Poor brother Judas, as Father Mazzolari called him in that beautiful sermon: Brother Judas, what happened to your heart? We should understand the lost sheep. We also always have some little thing, little or not so little, of the lost sheep. That which the lost sheep does is not so much an error, but a sickness that he has in his heart that the devil takes advantage of. In this way, Judas, with his divided heart and unsocial attitude, is the icon of the lost sheep that the shepherd seeks. But Judas did not understand, and in the end, when he sees what his double life provokes within the community, the evil that he sowed with his interior darkness, which made him always flee, searching for lights that were not the light of the Lord but lights like Christmas decorations, artificial lights – he despaired. There is a word in the Bible – the Lord is good, even with these sheep, he never fails to seek them – there is a word that says that Judas hanged himself, he repented and hanged himself. (Mt 27, 3) I believe that the Lord took this word and brought it with him, I don´t know, perhaps, but this word makes us doubt. What does this word mean? That until the end the love of God worked in that soul, until the moment of despair. And this is the attitude of the Good Shepherd with the strayed sheep. This is the proclamation, the good news that brings us Christmas and asks of us this sincere happiness that changes the heart, that brings us to allow ourselves to be consoled by the Lord, and not with the fleeting consolations that we seek, to flee from reality, from interior torture, interior division. When he found the lost sheep, Jesus did not insult it, even though it had done so much wrong. In the Garden of Olives he calls Judas “friend”. These are the caresses of God. Who doesn´t know about the caresses of the Lord doesn´t know about Christian doctrine! He who doesn´t allow himself to be caressed by the Lord is lost! And this is the good news, this is the sincere happiness that we wish for today. This is the happiness, this is the consolation that we seek: that the Lord come with his power, that are the caresses, his meeting up with us, to save us, as the lost sheep, and bring us to the flock of his Church. May the Lord grant us this grace to await Christmas with our wounds, with our sins, sincerely thankful, to await the power of this God that comes to console us, and comes with power, but his power is tenderness, the caresses that are born from his heart, this heart that is so good that he gave his life for us. (Homily, Santa Marta, December 6, 2016)
The Holy Father also described how today’s reading shows how the Lord will judge the great and the lowly “according to their deeds,” with the damned being thrown into the pool of fire. […] “Eternal damnation is not a torture chamber,” he said. “That’s a description of this second death: it is a death. And those who will not be received in the Kingdom of God, it’s because they have not drawn close to the Lord. These are the people who journeyed along their own path, distancing themselves from the Lord and passing in front of the Lord but then choosing to walk away from Him.” What eternal damnation is, he explained, is “continually distancing oneself from God.” “It is the worst pain, an unsatisfied heart, a heart that was created to find God but which, out of arrogance and self-confidence, distances itself from God.” Distancing oneself from God Who gives happiness and Who loves us so much, the Pontiff admonished, is the “fire,” and the road to eternal damnation.(Homily, Santa Marta, November 25, 2016)
God’s justice is his mercy given to everyone as a grace that flows from the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Thus the Cross of Christ is God’s judgement on all of us and on the whole world, because through it he offers us the certitude of love and new life. (Bull of Indiction of the Jubilee of Mercy, April 11, 2015)

Teachings of the Magisterium

Enter the various parts of our study


Saint Augustine of Hippo

The season for mercy is followed by the season of judgment – God’s goodness must lead to repentance

There is therefore a season for mercy, when the long-suffering of God calleth sinners to repentance. Hear the Apostle distinguishing each season, and do thou also distinguish it… ‘Thinkest thou,’ he saith, ‘O man, that judgest them that do such things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God?’ And as if we were to reply, Why do I commit such sins daily, and no evil occurreth unto me? He goeth on to show to him the season of mercy: ‘Despisest thou the riches of His goodness, and forbearance, and long-suffering?’ And he did indeed despise them; but the Apostle hath made him anxious. ‘Not knowing,’ he saith, ‘that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?’ Behold the season of mercy. But that he might not think this would last forever, how did he in the next verse raise his fears? Now hear the season of judgment; thou hast heard the season of mercy, on which account, ‘mercy and judgment will I sing unto Thee, O Lord:’ ‘But thou,’ saith the Apostle, ‘after thy hardness and impenitent heart, treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, who will render to every man according to his deeds’. (Saint Augustine. Exposition on Psalm 101 (100), no. 1-2)

He who was unjustly judged by the unjust, shall come manifestly to judge

For He shall come manifestly to judge justly the just and the unjust, who before came hiddenly to be unjustly judged by the unjust. He, I say, shall come manifestly, and shall not keep silence, that is, shall make Himself known by His voice of judgment. (Saint Augustine. The City of God, bk. 20, ch. 24, no.2)

Among the ungodly are counted not only those who refuse to believe in Christ, but also those who believed in Him to no purpose and without fruit

For He will come in the glory of His power, who of old condescended to come in the lowliness of humanity; and He will separate all the godly from the ungodly,—not only from those who have utterly refused to believe in Him at all, but also from those who have believed in Him to no purpose and without fruit. To the one class He will give an eternal kingdom together with Himself, while to the other He will award eternal punishment together with the devil. (Saint Augustine. On the Catechising of the Uninstructed, ch. 24, no. 45)

Catechism of Trent

During this life, Jesus Christ is our advocate before the Father: reason for greatest joy

He also ascended into heaven, according to the Apostle, that he may appear in the presence of God for us, and discharge for us the office of advocate with the Father. My little children, says Saint John, these things I write to you, that you may not sin. But if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the just: and he is the propitiation for our sins. There is nothing from which the faithful should derive greater joy and gladness of soul than from the reflection that Jesus Christ is constituted our advocate and the mediator of our salvation with the Eternal Father, with whom His influence and authority are supreme. (Catechism of Trent, Article VI of the Creed)

But, the second coming of the Son of God will be as a judge

The Sacred Scriptures inform us that there are two comings of the Son of God: the one when He assumed human flesh for our salvation in the womb of a virgin; the other when He shall come at the end of the world to judge all mankind. This latter coming is called in Scripture the day of the Lord. ‘The day of the Lord,’ says the Apostle, ‘shall come, as a thief in the night; and our Lord Himself says: Of that day and hour no one knoweth.’ […] And if, from the beginning of the world that day of the Lord, on which He was clothed with our flesh, was sighed for by all as the foundation of their hope of deliverance; so also, after the death and Ascension of the Son of God, we should make that other day of the Lord the object of our most earnest desires, looking for the blessed hope and coming of the glory of the great God.’ (Catechism of Trent, Article VII of the Creed)

The power of judging is attributed to the Son

In explaining this subject the pastor should distinguish two different occasions on which everyone must appear in the presence of the Lord to render an account of all his thoughts, words and actions, and to receive immediate sentence from his Judge. […] The second occurs when on the same day and in the same place all men shall stand together before the tribunal of their Judge, that in the presence and hearing of all human beings of all times each may know his final doom and sentence. The announcement of this judgment will constitute no small part of the pain and punishment of the wicked; whereas the good and just will derive great reward and consolation from the fact that it will then appear what each one was in life. […] Although the power of judging is common to all the Persons of the Blessed Trinity, yet it is specially attributed to the Son, because to Him also in a special manner is ascribed wisdom. (Catechism of Trent, Article VII of the Creed)

Benedict XVI

The Judge will return: we must not live as if good and evil were the same

The Judge who returns at the same time as Judge and Saviour has left us the duty to live in this world in accordance with his way of living. […] Since God can only be merciful we do not live as if good and evil were the same thing. This would be a deception. In reality, we live with a great responsibility. We have talents, and our responsibility is to work so that this world may be open to Christ, that it be renewed. (Benedict XVI. General Audience, November 12, 2008)

God is justice and creates justice: grace does not cancel out justice such that whatever one has done ends up being of equal value

The image of the Last Judgment is not primarily an image of terror, but an image of hope; for us it may even be the decisive image of hope. Is it not also a frightening image? I would say: it is an image that evokes responsibility, an image, therefore, of that fear of which Saint Hilary spoke when he said that all our fear has its place in love (cf. Tractatus super Psalmos, Ps 127:1-3). God is justice and creates justice. This is our consolation and our hope. And in his justice there is also grace. This we know by turning our gaze to the crucified and risen Christ. Both these things—justice and grace—must be seen in their correct inner relationship. Grace does not cancel out justice. It does not make wrong into right. It is not a sponge which wipes everything away, so that whatever someone has done on earth ends up being of equal value. (Benedict XVI. Encyclical Spe salve, no. 44, November 30, 2007)

Saint John Chrysostom

He who now remits our sins, will then appear again to judge all

Let us ever bear in mind this tribunal, that we may thus be enabled at all times to continue in virtue; […] For He who now hath remitted our sins, will then sit in judgment; He who hath died for our sake will then appear again to judge all mankind. ‘Unto them that look for Him,’ saith the Apostle, ‘shall He appear the second time without sin unto salvation’ (Heb 9:28). (Saint John Chrysostom. Homilies on the Gospel of John, homily 39)

John Paul II

The judgment of Christ is a definitive salvific act

The divine power of judging has been linked to the mission of Christ as Savior, as Redeemer of the world. And the same judging pertains to the work of salvation; to the order of salvation: it is a definitive salvific act. In effect, the purpose of judgment is the full participation in the divine Life as the last gift granted to man: the definitive fulfillment of his eternal vocation. At the same time the power to judge is linked with the exterior revelation of the glory of the Father in his Son as the Redeemer of man. (John Paul II. General Audience, September 30, 1987)

Christ will put an end to a universe corrupted by falsehood

The Lord will appear in clouds, clothed in power and glory. He is the same Son of man, merciful and compassionate, whom the disciples knew during his earthly journey. When the moment comes for his manifestation in glory, he will come to give human history its definitive fulfillment. Through the symbolism of cosmological upheavals, the Evangelist Mark recalls that God will pronounce his last judgment on human events in the Son, putting an end to a universe corrupted by falsehood and torn by violence and injustice. (John Paul II. Homily, Jubilee of the Armed Forces and Police, November 19, 2000)

Lateran Council IV (Ecumenical XII)

God is to judge the living and the dead

[Firmly we believe and we confess simply that the true God …] is to come at the end of time, to judge the living and the dead, and to render to each according to his works, to the wicked as well as to the elect, all of whom will rise with their bodies which they now bear, that they may receive according to their works, whether these works have been good or evil, the latter everlasting punishment with the devil, and the former everlasting glory with Christ. (Denzinger-Hünermann 801. Lateran Council IV. Definition against the Albigensians, ch.1 The Catholic Faith, November 11-30, 1215)

Catechism of the Catholic Church

Culpable unbelief that counted the offer of God’s grace as nothing will be condemned

Jesus announced the judgment of the Last Day in his preaching. Then will the conduct of each one (cf. Mk 12:38-40) and the secrets of hearts be brought to light (Lk 12:1-3; Jn 3:20-21; Rom 2:16; 1Cor 4:5). Then will the culpable unbelief that counted the offer of God’s grace as nothing be condemned (Mt 11:20-24; 12:41-42). Our attitude to our neighbour will disclose acceptance or refusal of grace and divine love (Mt 5:22; 7:1-5). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no.  678)

Judgment Day will be the definitive triumph of good over evil

On Judgement Day at the end of the world, Christ will come in glory to achieve the definitive triumph of good over evil which, like the wheat and the tares, have grown up together in the course of history. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 681)

Saint Irenaeus of Lyon

The same Judge will send the good and evil both into a fitting place

The same Father is manifestly declared (in this passage), ‘making peace and creating evil things,’ preparing fit things for both; as also there is one Judge sending both into a fit place, as the Lord sets forth in the parable of the tares and the wheat, where He says, ‘As therefore the tares are gathered together, and burned in the fire, so shall it be at the end of the world. The Son of man shall send His angels, and they shall gather from His kingdom everything that offendeth, and those who work iniquity, and shall send them into a furnace of fire: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth’. (Saint Irenaeus of Lyon. Against heresies, bk. IV, ch. 40, no. 2)

Benedict XII

Everyone will receive according to the good or evil practiced

Moreover, we declare that according to the common arrangement of God, the souls of those who depart in actual mortal sin immediately after their death descend to hell where they a-re tortured by infernal punishments, and that nevertheless on the day of judgment all men with their bodies will make themselves ready to render an account of their own deeds before the tribunal of Christ, ‘so that everyone may receive the proper things of the body according as he has done whether it be good or evil’ (2Cor 5:10). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1002. Benedict XII, Edict Benedictus Deus, January 29, 1336)

Saint Thomas Aquinas

All human affairs are included in Christ’s judiciary power

For, to whomsoever the substance is entrusted, the accessory is likewise committed. Now all human affairs are ordered for the end of beatitude, which is everlasting salvation, to which men are admitted, or from which they are excluded by Christ’s judgment, as is evident from Mt 25:31, 40. Consequently, it is manifest that all human affairs are included in Christ’s judiciary power. (Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, III, q. 59, a. 4)

Paul VI

Truths of the Christian doctrine may not be innovated according to arbitrary conjectures

We know well, in doing this, the problems that some modern ambiences are agitated regarding the faith. They did not escape the influence of a world that is undergoing a profound transformation, in which so many truths are either contested or put up for debate. Furthermore: we even see that some Catholics are captivated by a sort of passion for changes and innovations. Without doubt, the Church has always the obligation to penetrate more and more, and to offer them in more fitting way to men of each generation, into the profound mysteries of God, from which the fruits of salvation flow forth for all. But, at the same time, great care must be taken so that, while undertaking this necessary duty of investigation, truths of the Christian doctrine are not damaged. Because that would mean– and we have observed sadly that today this in reality takes place – general perturbation and perplexity in many faithful souls. For this reason, it is of great importance to warn that, besides that which is observable and that which is discovered by scientific means, the intelligence, which was given to us God, may arrive at reality, that which is, not only to the subjective expressions of structures and of the evolution of conscience; and that on the other hand, that what pertains to interpretation or hermeneutic is to seek to comprehend and discern, with respect to the word pronounced, the meaning of which a given text is an expression, but not to innovate, in any manner, this meaning, according to arbitrary conjectures. (Paul VI. Homily, Conclusion of the Year of Faith, June 30, 1968)

Congregation for the Clergy

It is not right be silent with respect to the final judgment

Catechesis on the subject of the last things:
– should, on the one hand, be taught under the aspect of consolation, of hope, and of salutary fear (cf. 1 Thess. 4:18) of which modem men have such great need; on the other hand, it should
– be imparted in such a way that the whole truth can be seen. It is not right to minimize the grave responsibility which everyone has regarding his future destiny. Catechesis cannot pass over in silence the judgement after death of each man, or the expiatory punishments of Purgatory, or the sad and lamentable reality of eternal death, or the final judgement. (Congregation for the Clergy, General Catechetical Directory, no. 69, April 1, 1971)

Sacred Scripture

Christ will place the sheep on his right and the goats on his left

When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, he will sit upon his glorious throne, and all the nations will be assembled before him. And he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. He will place the sheep on his right and the goats on his left. Then the king will say to those on his right, ‘Come, you who are blessed by my Father. Inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world’. […] Then he will say to those on his left, ‘Depart from me, you accursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels’. (Mt 25:31-34, 41)

The Father has given all judgment to his Son

Nor does the Father judge anyone, but he has given all judgment to his Son, Amen, amen, I say to you, the hour is coming and is now here when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. For just as the Father has life in himself, so also he gave to his Son the possession of life in himself. And he gave him power to exercise judgment, because he is the Son of Man. Do not be amazed at this, because the hour is coming in which all who are in the tombs will hear his voice and will come out, those who have done good deeds to the resurrection of life, but those who have done wicked deeds to the resurrection of condemnation. (Jn 5:22.25-29)

The just judgment of God will repay everyone according to his works

By your stubbornness and impenitent heart, you are storing up wrath for yourself for the day of wrath and revelation of the just judgment of God, who will repay everyone according to his works: eternal life to those who seek glory, honor, and immortality through perseverance in good works, but wrath and fury to those who selfishly disobey the truth and obey wickedness. (Rom 2:5-11)

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