Catechism of the Catholic Church…

…judges Francis’ idea on matrimony

  • The catechism clearly states that Christ condemns adultery

Adultery refers to marital infidelity. When two partners, of whom at least one is married to another party, have sexual relations – even transient ones – they commit adultery. Christ condemns even adultery of mere desire (cf. Mt 5:27–28). The sixth commandment and the New Testament forbid adultery absolutely (cf. Mt 5:32; 19:6; Mk 10:11; 1Cor 6:9–10). The prophets denounce the gravity of adultery; they see it as an image of the sin of idolatry (cf. Hos 2:7; Jer 5:7; 13:27). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2380)

  • The catechism does not hide the fact that divorce is a grave offense

Divorce is a grave offense against the natural law. It claims to break the contract, to which the spouses freely consented, to live with each other till death. Divorce does injury to the covenant of salvation, of which sacramental marriage is the sign. Contracting a new union, even if it is recognized by civil law, adds to the gravity of the rupture: the remarried spouse is then in a situation of public and permanent adultery: If a husband, separated from his wife, approaches another woman, he is an adulterer because he makes that woman commit adultery, and the woman who lives with him is an adulteress, because she has drawn another’s husband to herself (St. Basil, Moralia 73, 1). Divorce is immoral also because it introduces disorder into the family and into society. This disorder brings grave harm to the deserted spouse, to children traumatized by the separation of their parents and often torn between them, and because of its contagious effect which makes it truly a plague on society. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2384–2385)

  • The Church declares: if the divorced are remarried civilly, they find themselves in a situation that objectively contravenes God’s law

If the divorced are remarried civilly, they find themselves in a situation that objectively contravenes God’s law. Consequently, they cannot receive Eucharistic communion as long as this situation persists. For the same reason, they cannot exercise certain ecclesial responsibilities. Reconciliation through the sacrament of Penance can be granted only to those who have repented for having violated the sign of the covenant and of fidelity to Christ, and who are committed to living in complete continence. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1650)

…judges Francis’ idea on union in the Catholic Church

  • The Eucharist, by which the unity of believers is both represented and brought about

The Church is a ‘communion of saints’: this expression refers first to the ‘holy things’ (sancta), above all the Eucharist, by which ‘the unity of believers, who form one body in Christ, is both represented and brought about’ (LG 3). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 960)

  • Decisive factors of union: the profession of one faith, and common celebration of divine worship

What are these bonds of unity? Above all, charity ‘binds everything together in perfect harmony’ (Col 3:14). But the unity of the pilgrim Church is also assured by visible bonds of communion: – profession of one faith received from the Apostles; common celebration of divine worship, especially of the sacraments; apostolic succession through the sacrament of Holy Orders, maintaining the fraternal concord of God’s family. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 815)

…judges Francis’ idea on renouncing our own culture to benefit the refugees

  • In the unity of the People of God, a multiplicity of peoples and cultures is gathered together, and such diversity is not opposed to the Church’s unity

From the beginning, this one Church has been marked by a great diversity which comes from both the variety of God’s gifts and the diversity of those who receive them. Within the unity of the People of God, a multiplicity of peoples and cultures is gathered together. Among the Church’s members, there are different gifts, offices, conditions, and ways of life. “Holding a rightful place in the communion of the Church there are also particular Churches that retain their own traditions” (LG 13). The great richness of such diversity is not opposed to the Church’s unity. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 814)

  • The Church, leaven and soul of human society, must carry out a process of inculturation of the Gospel in the establishment of Christian communities

By her very mission, “the Church … travels the same journey as all humanity and shares the same earthly lot with the world: she is to be a leaven and, as it were, the soul of human society in its renewal by Christ and transformation into the family of God” (GS 40, 2). Missionary endeavor requires patience. It begins with the proclamation of the Gospel to peoples and groups who do not yet believe in Christ (cf. RMiss 42–47), continues with the establishment of Christian communities that are “a sign of God’s presence in the world” (AG 15), and leads to the foundation of local churches (cf. RMiss 48–49). It must involve a process of inculturation if the Gospel is to take flesh in each people’s culture. (cf. RMiss 52–54) There will be times of defeat. “With regard to individuals, groups, and peoples it is only by degrees that [the Church] touches and penetrates them and so receives them into a fullness which is Catholic” (AG 6). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 854)

  • Proclaim the Good News to those who do not know it, in order to consolidate, complete, and raise up truth and goodness and to purify men and nations from error and evil

The missionary task implies a respectful dialogue with those who do not yet accept the Gospel (cf. RMiss 55). Believers can profit from this dialogue by learning to appreciate better “those elements of truth and grace which are found among peoples, and which are, as it were, a secret presence of God” (AG 9). They proclaim the Good News to those who do not know it, in order to consolidate, complete, and raise up the truth and the goodness that God has distributed among men and nations, and to purify them from error and evil “for the glory of God, the confusion of the demon, and the happiness of man” (AG 9). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 856)

…judges Francis’ idea on if doctrine can be interpreted against the infallible Magisterium

  • The Magisterium assures that the People of God abide in the truth that liberates, and guarantees the profession of the true faith without error

In order to preserve the Church in the purity of the faith handed on by the apostles, Christ who is the Truth willed to confer on her a share in his own infallibility. By a “supernatural sense of faith” the People of God, under the guidance of the Church’s living Magisterium, “unfailingly adheres to this faith.” The mission of the Magisterium is linked to the definitive nature of the covenant established by God with his people in Christ. It is this Magisterium’s task to preserve God’s people from deviations and defections and to guarantee them the objective possibility of professing the true faith without error. Thus, the pastoral duty of the Magisterium is aimed at seeing to it that the People of God abide in the truth that liberates. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 889–890)

…judges Francis’ idea on Christian marriage realized in a partial and analogous way by adultery

  • It is an error to judge the morality of human acts by considering only the intention that inspires them or their circumstances

It is therefore an error to judge the morality of human acts by considering only the intention that inspires them or the circumstances (environment, social pressure, duress or emergency, etc.) which supply their context. There are acts which, in and of themselves, independently of circumstances and intentions, are always gravely illicit by reason of their object; such as blasphemy and perjury, murder and adultery. One may not do evil so that good may result from it. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1756)

  • Fornication is gravely contrary to the dignity of persons and a scandal

Fornication is carnal union between an unmarried man and an unmarried woman. It is gravely contrary to the dignity of persons and of human sexuality which is naturally ordered to the good of spouses and the generation and education of children. Moreover, it is a grave scandal when there is corruption of the young. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2353)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Church’s rules on matrimony being ‘overly rigid’

  • Adultery is gravely illicit independently of circumstances

It is therefore an error to judge the morality of human acts by considering only the intention that inspires them or the circumstances (environment, social pressure, duress or emergency, etc.) which supply their context. There are acts which, in and of themselves, independently of circumstances and intentions, are always gravely illicit by reason of their object; such as blasphemy and perjury, murder and adultery. One may not do evil so that good may result from it. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1756)

  • Christ even condemns adultery of mere desire, which is as an image of the sin of idolatry

Adultery refers to marital infidelity. When two partners, of whom at least one is married to another party, have sexual relations – even transient ones – they commit adultery. Christ condemns even adultery of mere desire (cf. Mt 5:27–28). The sixth commandment and the New Testament forbid adultery absolutely (cf. Mt 5:32; 19:6; Mk 10:11; 1 Cor 6:9–10). The prophets denounce the gravity of adultery; they see it as an image of the sin of idolatry (cf. Hos 2:7; Jer 5:7; 13:27). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2380)

  • Adultery does injury to the sign of the covenant of the marriage bond

Adultery is an injustice. He who commits adultery fails in his commitment. He does injury to the sign of the covenant which the marriage bond is, transgresses the rights of the other spouse, and undermines the institution of marriage by breaking the contract on which it is based. He compromises the good of human generation and the welfare of children who need their parents’ stable union. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2381)

  • The remarriage of persons divorced from a living spouse contravenes the plan and law of God

The remarriage of persons divorced from a living, lawful spouse contravenes the plan and law of God as taught by Christ. They are not separated from the Church, but they cannot receive Eucharistic communion. They will lead Christian lives especially by educating their children in the faith. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1665)

  • What God has joined together, let not man put asunder

Jesus came to restore creation to the purity of its origins. In the Sermon on the Mount, he interprets God’s plan strictly: ‘You have heard that it was said, “You shall not commit adultery.” But I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.’ (Mt 5:27–28) What God has joined together, let not man put asunder. (cf. Mt 19:6) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2336)

  • The Lord Jesus insisted that marriage be indissoluble

The Lord Jesus insisted on the original intention of the Creator who willed that marriage be indissoluble (cf. Mt 5:31–32; 19:3–9; Mk 10 9; Lk 16:18; 1Cor 7:10–11). He abrogates the accommodations that had slipped into the old Law (cf. Mt 19:7–9). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2382)

  • The remarried spouse is in a situation of public and permanent adultery

Divorce is a grave offense against the natural law. It claims to break the contract, to which the spouses freely consented, to live with each other till death. Divorce does injury to the covenant of salvation, of which sacramental marriage is the sign. Contracting a new union, even if it is recognized by civil law, adds to the gravity of the rupture: the remarried spouse is then in a situation of public and permanent adultery: If a husband, separated from his wife, approaches another woman, he is an adulterer because he makes that woman commit adultery, and the woman who lives with him is an adulteress, because she has drawn another’s husband to herself (St. Basil, Moralia 73, 1). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2384)

  • Divorce is immoral because it introduces disorder into the family and into society

Divorce is immoral also because it introduces disorder into the family and into society. This disorder brings grave harm to the deserted spouse, to children traumatized by the separation of their parents and often torn between them, and because of its contagious effect which makes it truly a plague on society. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2385)

  • The Church maintains that a new union after divorce cannot be recognized as valid

Today there are numerous Catholics in many countries who have recourse to civil divorce and contract new civil unions. In fidelity to the words of Jesus Christ — ‘Whoever divorces his wife and marries another, commits adultery against her; and if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery’ (Mk 10:11–12) The Church maintains that a new union cannot be recognized as valid, if the first marriage was. If the divorced are remarried civilly, they find themselves in a situation that objectively contravenes God’s law. Consequently, they cannot receive Eucharistic communion as long as this situation persists. For the same reason, they cannot exercise certain ecclesial responsibilities. Reconciliation through the sacrament of Penance can be granted only to those who have repented for having violated the sign of the covenant and of fidelity to Christ, and who are committed to living in complete continence. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1650)

  • The marriage bond established by God and consummated between baptized persons can never be dissolved

Thus the marriage bond has been established by God himself in such a way that a marriage concluded and consummated between baptized persons can never be dissolved. This bond, which results from the free human act of the spouses and their consummation of the marriage, is a reality, henceforth irrevocable, and gives rise to a covenant guaranteed by God’s fidelity. the Church does not have the power to contravene this disposition of divine wisdom (cf. CIC, can. 1141) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1640)

  • In some situations the Church permits a physical separation of the couple but the marriage bond remains indissoluble

Yet there are some situations in which living together becomes practically impossible for a variety of reasons. In such cases the Church permits the physical separation of the couple and their living apart. The spouses do not cease to be husband and wife before God and so are not free to contract a new union. In this difficult situation, the best solution would be, if possible, reconciliation. the Christian community is called to help these persons live out their situation in a Christian manner and in fidelity to their marriage bond which remains indissoluble (cf. FC 83; CIC, can. 1151–1155) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1649)

…judges Francis’ idea on Judas being a poor, penitent man

  • By despair, man ceases to hope for his personal salvation from God

The first commandment is also concerned with sins against hope, namely, despair and presumption: By despair, man ceases to hope for his personal salvation from God, for help in attaining it or for the forgiveness of his sins. Despair is contrary to God’s goodness, to his justice – for the Lord is faithful to his promises – and to his mercy. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2091)

  • Jesus did not abolish the Law but fulfilled it in a divine way

The same Word of God that had resounded on Mount Sinai to give the written Law to Moses, made itself heard anew on the Mount of the Beatitudes. Jesus did not abolish the Law but fulfilled it by giving its ultimate interpretation in a divine way: ‘You have heard that it was said to the men of old…But I say to you…’ (Mt 5:33–34) With this same divine authority, he disavowed certain human traditions of the Pharisees that were ‘making void the word of God’. (Mk 7:13) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 581)

…judges Francis’ idea that the Orthodox are no longer schismatics

  • The Creed confesses the filioque to indicate that the Holy Spirit proceeds ‘from the Father and the Son’

The Latin tradition of the Creed confesses that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son (filioque). the Council of Florence in 1438 explains: ‘The Holy Spirit is eternally from Father and Son; He has his nature and subsistence at once (simul) from the Father and the Son. He proceeds eternally from both as from one principle and through one spiration… And, since the Father has through generation given to the only-begotten Son everything that belongs to the Father, except being Father, the Son has also eternally from the Father, from whom he is eternally born, that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son’ (Council of Florence: DS 1300-1301). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 246)

  • Following an ancient Latin and Alexandrian tradition, Pope Saint Leo I already confessed the filioque dogmatically in 447

The affirmation of the filioque does not appear in the Creed confessed in 381 at Constantinople. But Pope Saint Leo I, following an ancient Latin and Alexandrian tradition, had already confessed it dogmatically in 447 even before Rome, in 451 at the Council of Chalcedon, came to recognize and receive the Symbol of 381. The use of this formula in the Creed was gradually admitted into the Latin liturgy (between the eighth and eleventh centuries). The introduction of the filioque into the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed by the Latin liturgy constitutes moreover, even today, a point of disagreement with the Orthodox Churches. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 247)

  • About the Holy Spirit, it is legitimate to say that He comes forth ‘from the Father and the Son’ (Western tradition) or ‘from the Father through the Son’ (Eastern tradition); but heretical to say ‘from the Father alone’

At the outset the Eastern tradition expresses the Father’s character as first origin of the Spirit. By confessing the Spirit as he ‘who proceeds from the Father’, it affirms that he comes from the Father through the Son (AG 2). The Western tradition expresses first the consubstantial communion between Father and Son, by saying that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son (filioque). It says this, ‘legitimately and with good reason’ (Council of Florence: DS 1302), for the eternal order of the divine persons in their consubstantial communion implies that the Father, as ‘the principle without principle’ (Council of Florence: DS 1331), is the first origin of the Spirit, but also that as Father of the only Son, he is, with the Son, the single principle from which the Holy Spirit proceeds (cf. Council of Lyons II: DS 850). This legitimate complementarity, provided it does not become rigid, does not affect the identity of faith in the reality of the same mystery confessed. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 248)

…judges Francis’ idea on the role of women in the Church

  • The Mother of Jesus is the image and beginning of the Church as it is to be perfected in the world to come

After speaking of the Church, her origin, mission, and destiny, we can find no better way to conclude than by looking to Mary. In her we contemplate what the Church already is in her mystery on her own ‘pilgrimage of faith,’ and what she will be in the homeland at the end of her journey. There, ‘in the glory of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity,’ ‘in the communion of all the saints,’ (Lumen Gentium, no. 69) The Church is awaited by the one she venerates as Mother of her Lord and as her own mother. ‘In the meantime the Mother of Jesus, in the glory which she possesses in body and soul in heaven, is the image and beginning of the Church as it is to be perfected in the world to come. Likewise she shines forth on earth until the day of the Lord shall come, a sign of certain hope and comfort to the pilgrim People of God’ (LG, no. 68). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 972)

…judges Francis’ idea that it is no longer necessary to declare one’s sins to a confessor to be pardoned

  • Individual and integral confession of grave sins remains the only ordinary means of reconciliation with God and with the Church

One who desires to obtain reconciliation with God and with the Church, must confess to a priest all the unconfessed grave sins he remembers after having carefully examined his conscience. […] Individual and integral confession of grave sins followed by absolution remains the only ordinary means of reconciliation with God and with the Church. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1493.1497)

  • By confession, the sinner is healed and re-established in ecclesial communion

Beneath the changes in discipline and celebration that this sacrament has undergone over the centuries, the same fundamental structure is to be discerned. It comprises two equally essential elements: on the one hand, the acts of the man who undergoes conversion through the action of the Holy Spirit: namely, contrition, confession, and satisfaction; on the other, God’s action through the intervention of the Church. The Church, who through the bishop and his priests forgives sins in the name of Jesus Christ and determines the manner of satisfaction, also prays for the sinner and does penance with him. Thus the sinner is healed and re-established in ecclesial communion. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1448)

  • The minister of this Sacrament must love the truth and be faithful to the Magisterium of the Church

The minister of this sacrament should unite himself to the intention and charity of Christ. He should have a proven knowledge of Christian behavior, experience of human affairs, respect and sensitivity toward the one who has fallen; he must love the truth, be faithful to the Magisterium of the Church, and lead the penitent with patience toward healing and full maturity. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1466)

…judges Francis’ attitude towards public sinners, changing Vatican protocol

  • The whole Church follows constantly the path of penance and renewal

Christ’s call to conversion continues to resound in the lives of Christians. This second conversion is an uninterrupted task for the whole Church who, ‘clasping sinners to her bosom, (is) at once holy and always in need of purification, (and) follows constantly the path of penance and renewal.’ This endeavor of conversion is not just a human work. It is the movement of a ‘contrite heart,’ drawn and moved by grace to respond to the merciful love of God who loved us first. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1428)

  • Anyone who deliberately refuses to accept God’s mercy by repenting, rejects the forgiveness of his sins

‘Whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin.’ There are no limits to the mercy of God, but anyone who deliberately refuses to accept his mercy by repenting, rejects the forgiveness of his sins and the salvation offered by the Holy Spirit. Such hardness of heart can lead to final impenitence and eternal loss. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1864)

…judges Francis’ idea that Christ was stained by sin

  • Jesus did not experience reprobation as if He himself had sinned

By sending his own Son in the form of a slave, in the form of a fallen humanity, on account of sin, God ‘made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.’ (cf. Phil 2:7) Jesus did not experience reprobation as if he himself had sinned. (cf. Jn 8:46) But in the redeeming love that always united him to the Father, he assumed us in the state of our waywardness of sin, to the point that he could say in our name from the cross: ‘My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?’ (Mk 15:34; Ps 22:2; cf. Jn 8:29) Having thus established him in solidarity with us sinners, God ‘did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all’, so that we might be ‘reconciled to God by the death of his Son’ (Rom 8:32; 5:10). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 602–603)

…judges Francis’ idea on conversion of the papacy

  • Jesus entrusted a specific authority to Peter…

Jesus entrusted a specific authority to Peter: ‘I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven’ (Mt 16:19) The ‘power of the keys’ designates authority to govern the house of God, which is the Church. Jesus, the Good Shepherd, confirmed this mandate after his Resurrection: ‘Feed my sheep’ (Jn 21: 15-17). The power to ‘bind and loose’ connotes the authority to absolve sins, to pronounce doctrinal judgements, and to make disciplinary decisions in the Church. Jesus entrusted this authority to the Church through the ministry of the apostles and in particular through the ministry of Peter, the only one to whom he specifically entrusted the keys of the kingdom. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 553)

…judges Francis’ idea on confession

  • By virtue of his divine authority, Christ gives this power to men to exercise in his name

Only God forgives sins (cf. Mk 2:7). Since he is the Son of God, Jesus says of himself: ‘The Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins’ and exercises this divine power; ‘Your sins are forgiven’ (cf. Mk 2:5, 10; Lk 7:48). Further, by virtue of his divine authority he gives this power to men to exercise in his name (cf. Jn 20:21 – 23). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1441)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Church’s moral teaching

  • When does the Church makes a moral judgment about economic and social matters?

The Church makes a moral judgment about economic and social matters, ‘when the fundamental rights of the person or the salvation of souls requires it.’ In the moral order she bears a mission distinct from that of political authorities: the Church is concerned with the temporal aspects of the common good because they are ordered to the sovereign Good, our ultimate end. She strives to inspire right attitudes with respect to earthly goods and in socio-economic relationships. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2420)

  • Human acts can be morally evaluated. They are either good or evil

Freedom makes man a moral subject. When he acts deliberately, man is, so to speak, the father of his acts. Human acts, that is, acts that are freely chosen in consequence of a judgment of conscience, can be morally evaluated. They are either good or evil. The morality of human acts depends on:
– the object chosen;
– the end in view or the intention;
– the circumstances of the action.
The object, the intention, and the circumstances make up the “sources,” or constitutive elements, of the morality of human acts. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1749–1750)

  • The circumstances contribute to increasing or diminishing the moral goodness or evil of human acts, but they make neither good nor right an action that is in itself evil

The circumstances, including the consequences, are secondary elements of a moral act. They contribute to increasing or diminishing the moral goodness or evil of human acts (for example, the amount of a theft). They can also diminish or increase the agent’s responsibility (such as acting out of a fear of death). Circumstances of themselves cannot change the moral quality of acts themselves; they can make neither good nor right an action that is in itself evil. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1754)

  • Sin is an offense against reason, truth, and right conscience, and is contrary to the eternal law

Sin is an offense against reason, truth, and right conscience; it is failure in genuine love for God and neighbor caused by a perverse attachment to certain goods. It wounds the nature of man and injures human solidarity. It has been defined as “an utterance, a deed, or a desire contrary to the eternal law.” (St. Augustine, Contra Faustum 22; St. Thomas Aquinas, STh I–II, 71, 6) Sin is an offense against God: ‘Against you, you alone, have I sinned, and done that which is evil in your sight.’ (Ps 51:4) Sin sets itself against God’s love for us and turns our hearts away from it. Like the first sin, it is disobedience, a revolt against God through the will to become ‘like gods,’ (Gen 3:5) knowing and determining good and evil. Sin is thus “love of oneself even to contempt of God.” (St. Augustine, De civ. Dei 14, 28) In this proud self-exaltation, sin is diametrically opposed to the obedience of Jesus, which achieves our salvation (cf. Phil 2:6–9). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1849–1850)

  • The root of sin is in the heart of man, in his free will

There are a great many kinds of sins. Scripture provides several lists of them. the Letter to the Galatians contrasts the works of the flesh with the fruit of the Spirit: ‘Now the works of the flesh are plain: fornication, impurity, licentiousness, idolatry, sorcery, enmity, strife, jealousy, anger, selfishness, dissension, factions, envy, drunkenness, carousing, and the like. I warn you, as I warned you before, that those who do such things shall not inherit the Kingdom of God’ (Gal 5:19–21; Rom 1:28–32; 1Cor 9–10; Eph 5:3–5; Col 3:5–8; 1Tim 9–10; 2Tim 2–5). Sins can be distinguished according to their objects, as can every human act; or according to the virtues they oppose, by excess or defect; or according to the commandments they violate. They can also be classed according to whether they concern God, neighbor, or oneself; they can be divided into spiritual and carnal sins, or again as sins in thought, word, deed, or omission. The root of sin is in the heart of man, in his free will, according to the teaching of the Lord: ‘For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, fornication, theft, false witness, slander. These are what defile a man’ (Mt 15:19–20). But in the heart also resides charity, the source of the good and pure works, which sin wounds. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1852–1853)

  • “Structures of sin” are the expression and the effects of personal sins

Sin is a personal act. Moreover, we have a responsibility for the sins committed by others when we cooperate in them:
– by participating directly and voluntarily in them;
– by ordering, advising, praising, or approving them;
– by not disclosing or not hindering them when we have an obligation to do so;
– by protecting evil-doers.

Thus sin makes men accomplices of one another and causes concupiscence, violence, and injustice to reign among them. Sins give rise to social situations and institutions that are contrary to the divine goodness. “Structures of sin” are the expression and effect of personal sins. They lead their victims to do evil in their turn. In an analogous sense, they constitute a “social sin” (John Paul II, RP 16). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1868–1869)

…judges Francis’ idea on switching Christ for interconfessionalism

  • Conversion of the heart is expressed in visible signs

Jesus’ call to conversion and penance, like that of the prophets before him, does not aim first at outward works, ‘sackcloth and ashes,’ fasting and mortification, but at the conversion of the heart, interior conversion. Without this, such penances remain sterile and false; however, interior conversion urges expression in visible signs, gestures and works of penance (Joel 2:12-13; Is 1:16-17; Mt 6:1-6; 16-18). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1430)

  • Conversion to God is impossible without repugnance toward evil

Interior repentance is a radical reorientation of our whole life, a return, a conversion to God with all our heart, an end of sin, a turning away from evil, with repugnance toward the evil actions we have committed. At the same time it entails the desire and resolution to change one’s life, with hope in God’s mercy and trust in the help of his grace. This conversion of heart is accompanied by a salutary pain and sadness which the Fathers called animi cruciatus (affliction of spirit) and compunctio cordis (repentance of heart). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1431)

…judges Francis’ idea on Christians and Muslims sharing the same points

  • Christianity is not a “religion of the book”, but the religion of the Word of God, Jesus Christ

Still, the Christian faith is not a “religion of the book”. Christianity is the religion of the “Word” of God, “not a written and mute word, but incarnate and living”. (St. Bernard, S. missus est hom. 4, 11: PL 183, 86) If the Scriptures are not to remain a dead letter, Christ, the eternal Word of the living God, must, through the Holy Spirit, “open (our) minds to understand the Scriptures.” (Cf. Lk 24:45) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 108)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Church called to dialogue

  • The mission of the Magisterium is to preserve God’s people form deviations

The mission of the Magisterium is linked to the definitive nature of the covenant established by God with his people in Christ. It is this Magisterium’s task to preserve God’s people from deviations and defections and to guarantee them the objective possibility of professing the true faith without error. Thus, the pastoral duty of the Magisterium is aimed at seeing to it that the People of God abides in the truth that liberates. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 890)

…judges Francis’ idea on obtaining spiritual fruits in other religions

  • Expressions of piety that extend the liturgical life of the Church

The religious sense of the Christian people has always found expression in various forms of piety surrounding the Church’s sacramental life, such as the veneration of relics, visits to sanctuaries, pilgrimages, processions, the stations of the cross, religious dances, the rosary, medals, (Cf. Council of Nicaea II: DS 601; 603; Council of Trent: DS 1822) etc. These expressions of piety extend the liturgical life of the Church, but do not replace it. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1674 – 1675)

…judges Francis’ idea on God judging us by loving us

  • To die in mortal sin means remaining separated from God forever by our own free choice

We cannot be united with God unless we freely choose to love him. But we cannot love God if we sin gravely against him, against our neighbor or against ourselves: ‘He who does not love remains in death. Anyone who hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life abiding in him.’ Our Lord warns us that we shall be separated from him if we fail to meet the serious needs of the poor and the little ones who are his brethren. To die in mortal sin without repenting and accepting God’s merciful love means remaining separated from him forever by our own free choice. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1033)

  • God’s almighty power is in no way arbitrary – nothing escapes His wisdom or justice

God’s almighty power is in no way arbitrary: ‘In God, power, essence, will, intellect, wisdom, and justice are all identical. Nothing therefore can be in God’s power which could not be in his just will or his wise intellect.’ (Saint Thomas Aquinas, STh I, 25, 5, ad I) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 271)

  • What is sin?

Sin is an offense against reason, truth, and right conscience; it is failure in genuine love for God and neighbor caused by a perverse attachment to certain goods. It wounds the nature of man and injures human solidarity. It has been defined as ‘an utterance, a deed, or a desire contrary to the eternal law’ (Saint Augustine. Contra Faustum 22: PL 42, 418; Saint Thomas Aquinas, STh I-II, 71, 6). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1849)

  • Mortal sin destroys charity by a grave violation of God’s law and turns man away from God

Mortal sin destroys charity in the heart of man by a grave violation of God’s law; it turns man away from God, who is his ultimate end and his beatitude, by preferring an inferior good to him. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1855)

  • For a sin to be mortal three conditions must together be met

For a sin to be mortal, three conditions must together be met: ‘Mortal sin is sin whose object is grave matter and which is also committed with full knowledge and deliberate consent.’ (Reconciliatio et penitentia, no. 17) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1857)

  • Sins have different degrees of gravity

Grave matter is specified by the Ten Commandments, corresponding to the answer of Jesus to the rich young man: ‘Do not kill, Do not commit adultery, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Do not defraud, Honor your father and your mother.’ The gravity of sins is more or less great: murder is graver than theft. One must also take into account who is wronged: violence against parents is in itself graver than violence against a stranger. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1858)

  • In order to commit mortal sin, one must have knowledge of the sinful character of the act and deliberately consent to it

Mortal sin requires full knowledge and complete consent. It presupposes knowledge of the sinful character of the act, of its opposition to God’s law. It also implies a consent sufficiently deliberate to be a personal choice. Feigned ignorance and hardness of heart (Mk 3:5 – 6; Lk 16:19 – 31) do not diminish, but rather increase, the voluntary character of a sin. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1859)

  • The gravest sin is what is committed through malice, by deliberate choice of evil

Unintentional ignorance can diminish or even remove the imputability of a grave offense. But no one is deemed to be ignorant of the principles of the moral law, which are written in the conscience of every man. the promptings of feelings and passions can also diminish the voluntary and free character of the offense, as can external pressures or pathological disorders. Sin committed through malice, by deliberate choice of evil, is the gravest. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1860)

  • Mortal sin results in the loss of charity and the privation of sanctifying grace

Mortal sin is a radical possibility of human freedom, as is love itself. It results in the loss of charity and the privation of sanctifying grace, that is, of the state of grace. If it is not redeemed by repentance and God’s forgiveness, it causes exclusion from Christ’s kingdom and the eternal death of hell, for our freedom has the power to make choices for ever, with no turning back. However, although we can judge that an act is in itself a grave offense, we must entrust judgment of persons to the justice and mercy of God. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1861)

  • The souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell to suffer eternal fire

The teaching of the Church affirms the existence of hell and its eternity. Immediately after death the souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell, where they suffer the punishments of hell, ‘eternal fire.’ The chief punishment of hell is eternal separation from God, in whom alone man can possess the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1035)

…judges Francis’ idea on Jesus asking forgiveness from his parents

  • Jesus lets us catch a glimpse of his divine sonship

The finding of Jesus in the temple is the only event that breaks the silence of the Gospels about the hidden years of Jesus (cf. Lk 2:41-52). Here Jesus lets us catch a glimpse of the mystery of his total consecration to a mission that flows from his divine sonship: ‘Did you not know that I must be about my Father’s work?’ Mary and Joseph did not understand these words, but they accepted them in faith. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 534)

…judges Francis’ idea on Grace

  • Grace is a participation in the life of God introducing us into the intimacy of Trinitarian life

Grace is a participation in the life of God. It introduces us into the intimacy of Trinitarian life. […] He receives the life of the Spirit who breathes charity into him and who forms the Church. This vocation to eternal life is supernatural. It depends entirely on God’s gratuitous initiative, for he alone can reveal and give himself. It surpasses the power of human intellect and will, as that of every other creature. The grace of Christ is the gratuitous gift that God makes to us of his own life, infused by the Holy Spirit into our soul to heal it of sin and to sanctify it. It is the sanctifying or deifying grace received in Baptism. It is in us the source of the work of sanctification. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1997 – 1999)

  • The difference between sanctifying and actual grace

Sanctifying grace is an habitual gift, a stable and supernatural disposition that perfects the soul itself to enable it to live with God, to act by his love. Habitual grace, the permanent disposition to live and act in keeping with God’s call, is distinguished from actual graces which refer to God’s interventions, whether at the beginning of conversion or in the course of the work of sanctification. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2000)

  • Sanctifying grace: origin of virtues and gifts

The Most Holy Trinity gives the baptized sanctifying grace, the grace of justification:

– enabling them to believe in God, to hope in him, and to love him through the theological virtues;

giving them the power to live and act under the prompting of the Holy Spirit through the gifts of the Holy Spirit;

allowing them to grow in goodness through the moral virtues. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1266)

  • The theological virtues are infused into the souls to make them capable of acting as God’s children

The theological virtues are the foundation of Christian moral activity; they animate it and give it its special character. They inform and give life to all the moral virtues. They are infused by God into the souls of the faithful to make them capable of acting as his children and of meriting eternal life. They are the pledge of the presence and action of the Holy Spirit in the faculties of the human being. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1813)

  • A reflection on God’s blessings in our life offers us a guarantee that grace is at work in us

Since it belongs to the supernatural order, grace escapes our experience and cannot be known except by faith. We cannot therefore rely on our feelings or our works to conclude that we are justified and saved (cf. Council of Trent). However, according to the Lord’s words ‘Thus you will know them by their fruits’ (Mt 7:20), reflection on God’s blessings in our life and in the lives of the saints offers us a guarantee that grace is at work in us and spurs us on to an ever greater faith and an attitude of trustful poverty. A pleasing illustration of this attitude is found in the reply of Saint Joan of Arc to a question posed as a trap by her ecclesiastical judges: ‘Asked if she knew that she was in God’s grace, she replied: ‘If I am not, may it please God to put me in it; if I am, may it please God to keep me there’ (Acts of the trial of Saint Joan of Arc). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2005)

…judges Francis’ idea on Faith

  • The believer has received faith from others and should hand it on to others – You have not given yourself faith as you have not given yourself life

Faith is a personal act − the free response of the human person to the initiative of God who reveals himself. But faith is not an isolated act. No one can believe alone, just as no one can live alone. You have not given yourself faith as you have not given yourself life. The believer has received faith from others and should hand it on to others. Our love for Jesus and for our neighbour impels us to speak to others about our faith. Each believer is thus a link in the great chain of believers. I cannot believe without being carried by the faith of others, and by my faith I help support others in the faith. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 166)

  • As a mother who teaches her children, the Church teaches us the language of faith

The Church, ‘the pillar and bulwark of the truth’, faithfully guards ‘the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints’. She guards the memory of Christ’s words; it is she who from generation to generation hands on the apostles’ confession of faith. (1Tim 3:15; Jude 3) As a mother who teaches her children to speak and so to understand and communicate, the Church our Mother teaches us the language of faith in order to introduce us to the understanding and the life of faith. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 171)

  • Faith demands that one submit freely to the word that has been heard

To obey (from the Latin ob-audire, to ‘hear or listen to’) in faith is to submit freely to the word that has been heard, because its truth is guaranteed by God, who is Truth itself. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 144)

…judges Francis’ idea on Catholic Faith and Lutheran belief

  • The sacraments are ‘of the Church’ in the double sense that they are ‘by her’ and ‘for her’

As she has done for the canon of Sacred Scripture and for the doctrine of the faith, the Church, by the power of the Spirit who guides her ‘into all truth,’ has gradually recognized this treasure received from Christ and, as the faithful steward of God’s mysteries, has determined its ‘dispensation’ (Jn 16:13). Thus the Church has discerned over the centuries that among liturgical celebrations there are seven that are, in the strict sense of the term, sacraments instituted by the Lord. The sacraments are ‘of the Church’ in the double sense that they are ‘by her’ and ‘for her’. They are ‘by the Church,’ for she is the sacrament of Christ’s action at work in her through the mission of the Holy Spirit. They are ‘of the Church’ in the sense that ‘the sacraments make the Church’ (Saint Augustine, De civ. Dei, 22, 17; cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, S Th III, 64,2 ad 3) since they manifest and communicate to men, above all in the Eucharist, the mystery of communion with the God who is love, One in three persons. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1117 – 1118)

  • Through the Eucharist the unity of true believers is brought about

The Church is a ‘communion of saints’: this expression refers first to the ‘holy things’ (sancta), above all the Eucharist, by which ‘the unity of believers, who form one body in Christ, is both represented and brought about’ (LG 3). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 960)

…judges Francis’ idea on God’s love for sinners

  • Blasphemy is in itself a grave sin

Blasphemy is directly opposed to the second commandment. It consists in uttering against God inwardly or outwardly words of hatred, reproach, or defiance; in speaking ill of God; in failing in respect toward him in one’s speech; in misusing God’s name. Saint James condemns those ‘who blaspheme that honorable name [of Jesus] by which you are called.’ The prohibition of blasphemy extends to language against Christ’s Church, the saints, and sacred things. […] the misuse of God’s name to commit a crime can provoke others to repudiate religion. Blasphemy is contrary to the respect due God and his holy name. It is in itself a grave sin. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2148)

…judges Francis’ idea on proclaiming the Gospel

  • The Church is sanctified and sanctifying

United with Christ, the Church is sanctified by him; through him and with him she becomes sanctifying. ‘All the activities of the Church are directed, as toward their end, to the sanctification of men in Christ and the glorification of God’ (SC 10). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 824)

…judges Francis’ idea on the ‘Bread of Life’

  • The first announcement of the Eucharist in the Gospel is found in John Chapter 6

The first announcement of the Eucharist divided the disciples, just as the announcement of the Passion scandalized them: ‘This is a hard saying; who can listen to it?’(Jn 6:60) The Eucharist and the Cross are stumbling blocks. It is the same mystery and it never ceases to be an occasion of division. ‘Will you also go away’(Jn 6:67)? The Lord’s question echoes through the ages, as a loving invitation to discover that only he has ‘the words of eternal life’ (Jn 6:68) and that to receive in faith the gift of his Eucharist is to receive the Lord himself. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1336)

  • The words of Jesus in the synagogue of Capernaum prepare for the institution of the Eucharist

The three synoptic Gospels and Saint Paul have handed on to us the account of the institution of the Eucharist; Saint John, for his part, reports the words of Jesus in the synagogue of Capernaum that prepare for the institution of the Eucharist: Christ calls himself the bread of life, come down from heaven (Cf. Jn 6). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1338)

  • Life in Christ has its foundation in the Eucharistic banquet

Holy Communion augments our union with Christ. The principal fruit of receiving the Eucharist in Holy Communion is an intimate union with Christ Jesus. Indeed, the Lord said: ‘He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him’ (Jn 6:56). Life in Christ has its foundation in the Eucharistic banquet: ‘As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me’ (Jn 6:57). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1391)

…judges Francis’ idea that Jesus is only mercy

  • The Last Judgment will reveal that God’s justice triumphs over all the injustices

The Last Judgment will reveal that God’s justice triumphs over all the injustices committed by his creatures. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1040)

…judges Francis’ idea on private property

  • The seventh commandment

You shall not steal. (Ex 20:15; Deut 5:19)

The seventh commandment forbids unjustly taking or keeping the goods of one’s neighbor and wronging him in any way with respect to his goods. It commands justice and charity in the care of earthly goods and the fruits of men’s labor. For the sake of the common good, it requires respect for the universal destination of goods and respect for the right to private property. Christian life strives to order this world’s goods to God and to fraternal charity. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2401)

  • The tenth commandment

You shall not covet […] nor anything […] that belongs to him. (Ex 20:17)

You shall not desire your neighbor’s house or field, nor his male or female slave, nor his ox or ass, nor anything that belongs to him. (Deut 5:21)

For where your treasure is, there also will your heart be. (Mt 6:21)

The tenth commandment unfolds and completes the ninth, which is concerned with concupiscence of the flesh. It forbids coveting the goods of another, as the root of theft, robbery, and fraud, which the seventh commandment forbids. ‘Lust of the eyes’ leads to the violence and injustice forbidden by the fifth commandment. Avarice, like fornication, originates in the idolatry prohibited by the first three prescriptions of the Law. The tenth commandment concerns the intentions of the heart; with the ninth, it summarizes all the precepts of the Law. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2534)

  • We should banish our desires for whatever does not belong to us

The tenth commandment forbids greed and the desire to amass earthly goods without limit. It forbids avarice arising from a passion for riches and their attendant power. It also forbids the desire to commit injustice by harming our neighbor in his temporal goods: When the Law says, ‘You shall not covet,’ these words mean that we should banish our desires for whatever does not belong to us. Our thirst for another’s goods is immense, infinite, never quenched. Thus it is written: ‘He who loves money never has money enough’ (Sir 5:8). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2536)

…judges Francis’ idea on the poor being the heart of the Gospel

  • The Paschal mystery stands at the centre of the Good News

The Paschal mystery of Christ’s cross and Resurrection stands at the centre of the Good News that the apostles, and the Church following them, are to proclaim to the world. God’s saving plan was accomplished ‘once for all’ (Heb 9:26) by the redemptive death of his Son Jesus Christ. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 571)

…judges Francis’ idea that Koran is a book of peace

  • Joy, peace, and mercy: the fruits of charity

The fruits of charity are joy, peace, and mercy; charity demands beneficence and fraternal correction; it is benevolence; it fosters reciprocity and remains disinterested and generous; it is friendship and communion. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1829)

  • Charity and peace: fruits of the Holy Spirit

The fruits of the Spirit are perfections that the Holy Spirit forms in us as the first fruits of eternal glory. The tradition of the Church lists twelve of them: ‘charity, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, generosity, gentleness, faithfulness, modesty, self-control, chastity.’ (Gal 5:22-23). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1832)

  • The divine and natural law shows man the way to practice the good and attain his end

The ‘divine and natural’ law (GS 89) shows man the way to follow so as to practice the good and attain his end. the natural law states the first and essential precepts which govern the moral life. It hinges upon the desire for God and submission to him, who is the source and judge of all that is good, as well as upon the sense that the other is one’s equal. Its principal precepts are expressed in the Decalogue. This law is called ‘natural’, not in reference to the nature of irrational beings, but because reason which decrees it properly belongs to human nature. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1955)

  • The natural law expresses the dignity of the person and determines the basis for his fundamental rights and duties

The natural law, present in the heart of each man and established by reason, is universal in its precepts and its authority extends to all men. It expresses the dignity of the person and determines the basis for his fundamental rights and duties: (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1956)

  • The natural law cannot be removed from the heart of man, and it is permanent throughout history

The natural law is immutable and permanent throughout the variations of history; it subsists under the flux of ideas and customs and supports their progress. The rules that express it remain substantially valid. Even when it is rejected in its very principles, it cannot be destroyed or removed from the heart of man. It always rises again in the life of individuals and societies. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1958)

  • No one is ignorant of the principles of the moral law, written in the conscience of every man

Unintentional ignorance can diminish or even remove the imputability of a grave offense. But no one is deemed to be ignorant of the principles of the moral law, which are written in the conscience of every man. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1860)

  • Original sin weakened human nature

As a result of original sin, human nature is weakened in its powers, subject to ignorance, suffering and the domination of death, and inclined to sin (this inclination is called ‘concupiscence’). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 418)

  • Grace heals and is the source of the work of sanctification

The grace of Christ is the gratuitous gift that God makes to us of his own life, infused by the Holy Spirit into our soul to heal it of sin and to sanctify it. It is the sanctifying or deifying grace received in Baptism. It is in us the source of the work of sanctification (cf. Jn 4:14; 7:38-39). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1999)

  • The Sacraments are ‘of the Church’ in the double sense: they are ‘by her’ and ‘for her’

The sacraments are ‘of the Church’ in the double sense that they are ‘by her’ and ‘for her.’ They are ‘by the Church,’ for she is the sacrament of Christ’s action at work in her through the mission of the Holy Spirit. They are ‘for the Church’ in the sense that ‘the sacraments make the Church’ (Saint Augustine, De civ. Dei 22, 17; cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, Sth III, 64, 2 ad 3) since they manifest and communicate to men, above all in the Eucharist, the mystery of communion with the God who is love, One in three persons. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1118)

  • The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace

The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1131)

  • Christ established his holy Church through which he communicates truth and grace to all men

The one mediator, Christ, established and ever sustains here on earth his holy Church, the community of faith, hope, and charity, as a visible organization through which he communicates truth and grace to all men. (Lumen Gentium 8 #1) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 771)

…judges Francis’ idea that Jesus came into the world to learn how to be a man

  • All the works, wonders and signs are proof of His obedience to the Father

Jesus accompanies his words with many ‘mighty works and wonders and signs’, which manifest that the kingdom is present in him and attest that he was the promised Messiah (Acts 2:22). The signs worked by Jesus attest that the Father has sent him. They invite belief in him (Jn 5:26; 10:25). To those who turn to him in faith, he grants what they ask (Mk 5:25-34; 10:52). So miracles strengthen faith in the One who does his Father’s works; they bear witness that he is the Son of God (Jn 10:31-38). But his miracles can also be occasions for ‘offence’ (Mt 11:6); they are not intended to satisfy people’s curiosity or desire for magic. Despite his evident miracles some people reject Jesus; he is even accused of acting by the power of demons. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 547-548)

  • The Word made flesh willed humanly in obedience to his Father all that he had decided divinely

Similarly, at the sixth ecumenical council, Constantinople III in 681, the Church confessed that Christ possesses two wills and two natural operations, divine and human. They are not opposed to each other, but co-operate in such a way that the Word made flesh willed humanly in obedience to his Father all that he had decided divinely with the Father and the Holy Spirit for our salvation (cf. Council of Constantinople III). Christ’s human will ‘does not resist or oppose but rather submits to his divine and almighty will’ (Council of Constantinople III). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 475)

  • “I have come to do your will, O God”

In Christ, and through his human will, the will of the Father has been perfectly fulfilled once for all. Jesus said on entering into this world: ‘Lo, I have come to do your will, O God’ (Heb 10:7; Ps 40:7). Only Jesus can say: ‘I always do what is pleasing to him’ (Jn 8:29). In the prayer of his agony, he consents totally to this will: ‘not my will, but yours be done’ (Lk 22:42; cf. Jn 4:34; 5:30; 6:38). For this reason Jesus ‘gave himself for our sins to deliver us from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father’ (Gal 1:4). ‘And by that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all’ (Heb 10:10). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2824)

  • Jesus was also obedient also in moments of glory

You were transfigured on the mountain, and your disciples, as much as they were capable of it, beheld your glory, O Christ our God, so that when they should see you crucified they would understand that your Passion was voluntary, and proclaim to the world that you truly are the splendour of the Father (Byzantine Liturgy, Feast of the Transfiguration, Kontakion). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 555)

  • The Word became flesh so that thus we might know God’s love

The Word became flesh so that thus we might know God’s love: ‘In this the love of God was made manifest among us, that God sent his only Son into the world, so that we might live through him’ (1Jn 4:9). ‘For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life’ (Jn 3:16).(Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 458)

  • Jesus is the model for the Beatitudes and the norm of the New Law

The Word became flesh to be our model of holiness: ‘Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me.’ ‘I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but by me’ (Mt 11:29; Jn 14:6). On the mountain of the Transfiguration, the Father commands: ‘Listen to him’ (Mk 9:7; cf. Deut 6:4-5)! Jesus is the model for the Beatitudes and the norm of the new law: ‘Love one another as I have loved you’ (Jn 15:12). This love implies an effective offering of oneself, after his example. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 459)

…judges Francis’ idea that spiritual direction is a charism of the laity

  • Authentic teachers endowed with the authority of Christ

Bishops, with priests as co-workers, have as their first task ‘to preach the Gospel of God to all men’ in keeping with the Lord’s command. They are ‘heralds of faith, who draw new disciples to Christ; they are authentic teachers’ of the apostolic faith ‘endowed with the authority of Christ’ (Lumen gentium, no. 25). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 888)

…judges Francis’ idea on adulterine unions

  • Acts such as adultery are always gravely illicit – no circumstance can legitimize a ‘second union’

It is therefore an error to judge the morality of human acts by considering only the intention that inspires them or the circumstances (environment, social pressure, duress or emergency, etc.) which supply their context. There are acts which, in and of themselves, independently of circumstances and intentions, are always gravely illicit by reason of their object; such as blasphemy and perjury, murder and adultery. One may not do evil so that good may result from it. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1756)

  • The Ten Commandments oblige always and everywhere – no one can dispense from them

Since they express man’s fundamental duties towards God and towards his neighbor, the Ten Commandments reveal, in their primordial content, grave obligations. They are fundamentally immutable, and they oblige always and everywhere. No one can dispense from them. The Ten Commandments are engraved by God in the human heart. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2072)

  • The Ten Commandments are obligatory for Christians

The Council of Trent teaches that the Ten Commandments are obligatory for Christians and that the justified man is still bound to keep them (Cf. DS 1569-1570); The Second Vatican Council confirms: ‘The bishops, successors of the apostles, receive from the Lord […] the mission of teaching all peoples, and of preaching the Gospel to every creature, so that all men may attain salvation through faith, Baptism and the observance of the Commandments’ (Lumen Gentium, no. 24). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2068)

…judges Francis’ idea that Christians and Muslims share the same faith

  • Faith is a supernatural virtue infused by God making it easy for all to accept the truth – one must be moved by grace to have faith

When Saint Peter confessed that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God, Jesus declared to him that this revelation did not come ‘from flesh and blood’, but from ‘my Father who is in heaven’ (Mt 16:17; cf. Gal 1:15; Mt 11:25). Faith is a gift of God, a supernatural virtue infused by him. ‘Before this faith can be exercised, man must have the grace of God to move and assist him; he must have the interior helps of the Holy Spirit, who moves the heart and converts it to God, who opens the eyes of the mind and ‘makes it easy for all to accept and believe the truth.’ (Dei Verbum, no. 5) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 153)

  • Those who do not act habitually according to the Spirit of Christ, can neither pray habitually in his Name

Prayer is both a gift of grace and a determined response on our part. It always presupposes effort. The great figures of prayer of the Old Covenant before Christ, as well as the Mother of God, the saints, and he himself, all teach us this: prayer is a battle. Against whom? Against ourselves and against the wiles of the tempter who does all he can to turn man away from prayer, away from union with God. We pray as we live, because we live as we pray. If we do not want to act habitually according to the Spirit of Christ, neither can we pray habitually in his name. The ‘spiritual battle’ of the Christian’s new life is inseparable from the battle of prayer. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2725)

  • Our human understanding can understand what God tells us by means of the wisdom and order of his creation

Because God creates through wisdom, his creation is ordered: ‘You have arranged all things by measure and number and weight.’ (cf. Wis 11:20.) The universe, created in and by the eternal Word, the ‘image of the invisible God’, is destined for and addressed to man, himself created in the ‘image of God’ and called to a personal relationship with God (cf. Col 1:15, Gen 1:26). Our human understanding, which shares in the light of the divine intellect, can understand what God tells us by means of his creation, though not without great effort and only in a spirit of humility and respect before the Creator and his work (cf. Job 42:3). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 299)

  • To desire any vision or revelation even after God has given us His Son would be to offend Him

In giving us his Son, his only Word (for he possesses no other), he spoke everything to us at once in this sole Word — and he has no more to say. . . because what he spoke before to the prophets in parts, he has now spoken all at once by giving us the All Who is His Son. Any person questioning God or desiring some vision or revelation would be guilty not only of foolish behaviour but also of offending him, by not fixing his eyes entirely upon Christ and by living with the desire for some other novelty (Saint John of the Cross. The Ascent of Mount Carmel 2, 22, 3-5). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 65)

  • Because God creates through wisdom, his creation is ordered

Because God creates through wisdom, his creation is ordered: ‘You have arranged all things by measure and number and weight’ (Wis 11:20). The universe, created in and by the eternal Word, the ‘image of the invisible God’, is destined for and addressed to man, himself created in the ‘image of God’ and called to a personal relationship with God (Gen 1:26) […] from God’s goodness, it shares in that goodness – ‘and God saw that it was good. . . very good’ (Gen 1:4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 31). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 299)

…judges Francis’ idea on good-will replacing theological investigation

  • The great richness of diversity of the Church’s members is not opposed to unity

From the beginning, this one Church has been marked by a great diversity which comes from both the variety of God’s gifts and the diversity of those who receive them. Within the unity of the People of God, a multiplicity of peoples and cultures is gathered together. Among the Church’s members, there are different gifts, offices, conditions, and ways of life. ‘Holding a rightful place in the communion of the Church there are also particular Churches that retain their own traditions’ (LG 13). The great richness of such diversity is not opposed to the Church’s unity. Yet sin and the burden of its consequences constantly threaten the gift of unity. and so the Apostle has to exhort Christians to ‘maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace’ (Eph 4:3). What are these bonds of unity? Above all, charity ‘binds everything together in perfect harmony’ (Col 3:14). But the unity of the pilgrim Church is also assured by visible bonds of communion:
profession of one faith received from the Apostles;
common celebration of divine worship, especially of the sacraments;
apostolic succession through the sacrament of Holy Orders, maintaining the fraternal concord of God’s family. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 814-815)

…judges Francis’ idea on family

  • A family is formed by a man and a woman united in marriage, together with their children

A man and a woman united in marriage, together with their children, form a family. This institution is prior to any recognition by public authority, which has an obligation to recognize it. It should be considered the normal reference point by which the different forms of family relationship are to be evaluated. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2202)

  • Homosexuality is a grave depravity an under no circumstances can it be approved

Homosexuality refers to relations between men or between women who experience an exclusive or predominant sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex. It has taken a great variety of forms through the centuries and in different cultures. Its psychological genesis remains largely unexplained. Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity (cf. Gen 191-29; Rom 124-27; 1Cor 6:10; 1Tim 1:10), tradition has always declared that ‘homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered’ (CDF, Persona humana 8). They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2357)

…judges Francis’ idea on human suffering

  • In Jesus, God and man are inseparable

The Church thus confesses that Jesus is inseparably true God and true man. He is truly the Son of God who, without ceasing to be God and Lord, became a man and our brother. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 469)

  • Thus everything in Christ’s human nature is to be attributed to his divine Person as its proper subject

‘There is but one hypostasis [or person], which is our Lord Jesus Christ, one of the Trinity’ (Council of Constantinople II – 553AD). Thus everything in Christ’s human nature is to be attributed to his divine person as its proper subject, not only his miracles but also his sufferings and even his death: ‘He who was crucified in the flesh, our Lord Jesus Christ, is true God, Lord of glory, and one of the Holy Trinity’. (ibid. no. 432) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 468)

  • In his soul as in his body, Christ expresses humanly the divine ways of the Trinity

Because ‘human nature was assumed, not absorbed’, (Gaudium et Spes, no. 22) in the mysterious union of the Incarnation, the Church was led over the course of centuries to confess the full reality of Christ’s human soul, with its operations of intellect and will, and of his human body. In parallel fashion, she had to recall on each occasion that Christ’s human nature belongs, as his own, to the divine person of the Son of God, who assumed it. Everything that Christ is and does in this nature derives from ‘one of the Trinity’. The Son of God therefore communicates to his humanity his own personal mode of existence in the Trinity. In his soul as in his body, Christ thus expresses humanly the divine ways of the Trinity (cf. Jn 14:9-10). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 470)

  • The virtue of truth gives another his just due; it entails honesty and discretion

The virtue of truth gives another his just due. Truthfulness keeps to the just mean between what ought to be expressed and what ought to be kept secret: it entails honesty and discretion. In justice, ‘as a matter of honor, one man owes it to another to manifest the truth’ (Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, II-II, 109, 3, corp. art.). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2469)

  • Lying is destructive of society; it undermines trust among men and tears apart the fabric of social relationships

‘A lie consists in speaking a falsehood with the intention of deceiving.’ The Lord denounces lying as the work of the devil: ‘You are of your father the devil, . . . there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks according to his own nature, for he is a liar and the father of lies.’ […] Lying is the most direct offense against the truth […] By its very nature, lying is to be condemned. It is a profanation of speech, whereas the purpose of speech is to communicate known truth to others. […] Since it violates the virtue of truthfulness, a lie does real violence to another. It affects his ability to know, which is a condition of every judgment and decision. It contains the seed of discord and all consequent evils. Lying is destructive of society; it undermines trust among men and tears apart the fabric of social relationships. Every offense committed against justice and truth entails the duty of reparation, even if its author has been forgiven. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2482-2483.2485-2487)

  • In many Gospel passages, Jesus calls himself the Truth

In Jesus Christ, the whole of God’s truth has been made manifest. ‘Full of grace and truth,’ he came as the ‘light of the world,’ he is the Truth (Jn 1:14). ‘Whoever believes in me may not remain in darkness’ (Jn 12:46). The disciple of Jesus continues in his word so as to know ‘the truth [that] will make you free’ and that sanctifies (Jn 8:32). To follow Jesus is to live in ‘the Spirit of truth,’ whom the Father sends in his name and who leads ‘into all the truth’ (Jn 16:13). To his disciples Jesus teaches the unconditional love of truth: “Let what you say be simply ‘Yes or No’” (Mt 5:37). Truth as uprightness in human action and speech is called truthfulness, sincerity, or candor. Truth or truthfulness is the virtue which consists in showing oneself true in deeds and truthful in words, and in guarding against duplicity, dissimulation, and hypocrisy. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2466.2468)

…judges Francis’ idea that sin forms a part of religious life

  • God created man without sin

God created man in his image and established him in his friendship. A spiritual creature, man can live this friendship only in free submission to God. […] Man is dependent on his Creator, and subject to the laws of creation and to the moral norms that govern the use of freedom. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 396)

  • In sinning, man acted against the requirements of his creaturely status

Man, tempted by the devil, let his trust in his Creator die in his heart and, (cf. Gen 3:1-11) abusing his freedom, disobeyed God’s command. This is what man’s first sin consisted of (cf. Rom 5:19). […] In that sin man preferred himself to God and by that very act scorned him. He chose himself over and against God, against the requirements of his creaturely status and therefore against his own good. Created in a state of holiness, man was destined to be fully ‘divinized’ by God in glory. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 397-398)

…judges Francis’ idea that catholics and muslims adore the same God

  • The mystery of the Most Holy Trinity is the mystery of God in Himself

The mystery of the Most Holy Trinity is the central mystery of Christian faith and life. It is the mystery of God in himself. It is therefore the source of all the other mysteries of faith, the light that enlightens them. It is the most fundamental and essential teaching in the ‘hierarchy of the truths of faith’. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 234)

  • God cannot lie

Faith is certain. It is more certain than all human knowledge because it is founded on the very word of God who cannot lie. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 157)

  • There is no other God other than the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit

We must believe in no one but God: the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 178)

  • Christ is the fulfillment of Revelation

‘In many and various ways God spoke of old to our fathers by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son’ (Heb 1:1-2). No one knows the Father except the Son and anyone to whom the Son wishes to reveal him. In him he has said everything; there will be no other word than this one. Saint John of the Cross, among others, commented strikingly on Hebrews 1:1-2 […] Christian faith cannot accept ‘revelations’ that claim to surpass or correct the Revelation of which Christ is the fulfilment, as is the case in certain nonChristian religions and also in certain recent sects which base themselves on such ‘revelations’. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 65.67)

  • Believing in God cannot be separated from believing in the One he sent, his ‘beloved Son’

For a Christian, believing in God cannot be separated from believing in the One he sent, his ‘beloved Son’, in whom the Father is ‘well pleased’; God tells us to listen to him. The Lord himself said to his disciples: ‘Believe in God, believe also in me’ (Jn 14:1). We can believe in Jesus Christ because he is himself God, the Word made flesh: ‘No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known’ (Jn 1:18). Because he ‘has seen the Father’, Jesus Christ is the only one who knows him and can reveal him (Jn 6:46; cf. Mt 11:27). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 151)

  • God is in no way the cause of moral evil but He permits it

God is in no way, directly or indirectly, the cause of moral evil. (Cf. Saint Augustine, De libero arbitrio I, 1, 2; Saint Thomas Aquinas, STh I-II, 79, 1) He permits it, however, because he respects the freedom of his creatures and, mysteriously, knows how to derive good from it. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 311)

  • From the greatest moral evil ever committed, God brought the greatest of goods

In time we can discover that God in his almighty providence can bring a good from the consequences of an evil, even a moral evil, caused by his creatures: ‘It was not you’, said Joseph to his brothers, ‘who sent me here, but God. . . You meant evil against me; but God meant it for good, to bring it about that many people should be kept alive’ (Gen 45:8; ⇒ 50:20; cf. Tob 2:12 (Vulgate)). From the greatest moral evil ever committed – the rejection and murder of God’s only Son, caused by the sins of all men – God, by his grace that ‘abounded all the more’, (Rom 5:20) brought the greatest of goods: the glorification of Christ and our redemption. But for all that, evil never becomes a good. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 312)

…judges Francis’ idea on sects forming part of the Church

  • Only faith can recognize that the Church possesses unity, but their historical manifestations are signs that also speak clearly to human reason

Only faith can recognize that the Church possesses these properties [one, holy, catholic and apostolic] from her divine source. But their historical manifestations are signs that also speak clearly to human reason. As the First Vatican Council noted, the ‘Church herself, with her marvelous propagation, eminent holiness, and inexhaustible fruitfulness in everything good, her catholic unity and invincible stability, is a great and perpetual motive of credibility and an irrefutable witness of her divine mission.’ (Vatican Council I: DS 3013) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 812)

  • The bonds of unity of the Church

What are these bonds of unity? Above all, charity ‘binds everything together in perfect harmony’ (Col 3:14). But the unity of the pilgrim Church is also assured by visible bonds of communion: – profession of one faith received from the Apostles; common celebration of divine worship, especially of the sacraments; apostolic succession through the sacrament of Holy Orders, maintaining the fraternal concord of God’s family. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 815)

…judges Francis’ idea on human suffering

  • A new meaning for suffering – participation in the saving work of Jesus

Suffering, a consequence of original sin, acquires a new meaning; it becomes a participation in the saving work of Jesus. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1521)

  • Makes a person more mature, helping to discern what is not essential

Illness and suffering have always been among the gravest problems confronted in human life. In illness, man experiences his powerlessness, his limitations, and his finitude. Every illness can make us glimpse death. Illness can lead to anguish, self-absorption, sometimes even despair and revolt against God. It can also make a person more mature, helping him discern in his life what is not essential so that he can turn toward that which is. Very often illness provokes a search for God and a return to him. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1500-1501)

  • There is no holiness without the Cross

The way of perfection passes by way of the Cross. There is no holiness without renunciation and spiritual battle. Spiritual progress entails the ascesis and mortification that gradually lead to living in the peace and joy of the Beatitudes. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2015)

  • The Word incarnate enjoyed the fullness of understanding of the eternal plans

By its union to the divine wisdom in the person of the Word incarnate, Christ enjoyed in his human knowledge the fullness of understanding of the eternal plans he had come to reveal. What he admitted to not knowing in this area, he elsewhere declared himself not sent to reveal. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 474)

  • Jesus is inseparably true God and true man

The Church thus confesses that Jesus is inseparably true God and true man. He is truly the Son of God who, without ceasing to be God and Lord. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 469)

  • Jesus willed humanly all that had decided divinely

Similarly, at the sixth ecumenical council, Constantinople III in 681, the Church confessed that Christ possesses two wills and two natural operations, divine and human. They are not opposed to each other, but co-operate in such a way that the Word made flesh willed humanly in obedience to his Father all that he had decided divinely with the Father and the Holy Spirit for our salvation (cf. Council of Constantinople III (681 AD). Christ’s human will ‘does not resist or oppose but rather submits to his divine and almighty will’. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 475)

…judges Francis’ idea that man is the center of christian life

  • The Son of God is always the center of the apostolic faith

Such is not the case for Simon Peter when he confesses Jesus as ‘the Christ, the Son of the living God’, for Jesus responds solemnly: ‘Flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven’ (Mt 16:16-17). Similarly Paul will write, regarding his conversion on the road to Damascus, ‘When he who had set me apart before I was born, and had called me through his grace, was pleased to reveal his Son to me, in order that I might preach him among the Gentiles’… (Gal 1:15-16) ‘and in the synagogues immediately [Paul] proclaimed Jesus, saying, ‘He is the Son of God’(Acts 9:20). From the beginning this acknowledgment of Christ’s divine sonship will be the centre of the apostolic faith, first professed by Peter as the Church’s foundation (Mt 16:18). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 442)

…judges Francis’ idea on selling off churches to feed the poor

  • The Church’s love for the poor extends not only to material poverty but also to the many forms of cultural and religious poverty

‘The Church’s love for the poor . . . is a part of her constant tradition.’ This love is inspired by the Gospel of the Beatitudes, of the poverty of Jesus, and of his concern for the poor. Love for the poor is even one of the motives for the duty of working so as to ‘be able to give to those in need’ (Eph 4:28). It extends not only to material poverty but also to the many forms of cultural and religious poverty. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2444)

…judges Francis’ idea on the words of Jesus Christ upon the Cross

  • If we do not want to act habitually according to the Spirit of Christ, neither can we pray habitually in his name

Prayer is both a gift of grace and a determined response on our part. It always presupposes effort. the great figures of prayer of the Old Covenant before Christ, as well as the Mother of God, the saints, and he himself, all teach us this: prayer is a battle. Against whom? Against ourselves and against the wiles of the tempter who does all he can to turn man away from prayer, away from union with God. We pray as we live, because we live as we pray. If we do not want to act habitually according to the Spirit of Christ, neither can we pray habitually in his name. The ‘spiritual battle’ of the Christian’s new life is inseparable from the battle of prayer. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2725)

  • Jesus assumed us in the state of our waywardness of sin, to the point that He could say in our name: ‘My God, my God, why have you forsaken me’

Jesus did not experience reprobation as if he himself had sinned (Jn 8:46). But in the redeeming love that always united him to the Father, he assumed us in the state of our waywardness of sin, to the point that he could say in our name from the cross: ‘My God, my God, why have you forsaken me’ (Mk 15:34, Ps 22:2 Jn 8:29)? Having thus established him in solidarity with us sinners, God ‘did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all’, so that we might be ‘reconciled to God by the death of his Son’ (Rom 8:32, Rom 5:10). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 603)

…judges Francis’ criteria for the nomination of Bishops

  • The bishop receives a grace of strength to guide and defend the Church

The grace of the Holy Spirit proper to this sacrament is configuration to Christ as Priest, Teacher, and Pastor, of whom the ordained is made a minister. For the bishop, this is first of all a grace of strength (‘the governing spirit’: Prayer of Episcopal Consecration in the Latin rite), the grace to guide and defend his Church with strength and prudence as a father and pastor, with gratuitous love for all and a preferential love for the poor, the sick, and the needy. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1585-1586)

…judges Francis’ prayer in the ecumenical and interreligious Meeting in Sarajevo

  • Christian prayer is characterizedthrough Christ our Lord

Christian prayer is characterized by the title ‘Lord’, whether in the invitation to prayer (‘The Lord be with you’), its conclusion (‘through Christ our Lord’) or the exclamation full of trust and hope: Maranatha (‘Our Lord, come!’) or Maranatha (‘Come, Lord!’) – ‘Amen Come Lord Jesus!’ (1 Cor 16:22; Rev 22:20.) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 451)

  • Believing in God cannot be separated from believing in the One He sent – Jesus Christ is the only one who knows the Father and can reveal Him

For a Christian, believing in God cannot be separated from believing in the One he sent, his ‘beloved Son’, in whom the Father is ‘well pleased’; God tells us to listen to him (Mk 1:11; cf. 9:7). The Lord himself said to his disciples: ‘Believe in God, believe also in me’ (Jn 14:1). We can believe in Jesus Christ because he is himself God, the Word made flesh: ‘No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known’ (Jn 1:18). Because he ‘has seen the Father’, Jesus Christ is the only one who knows him and can reveal him (Jn 6:46; cf. Mt 11:27). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 151)

  • One must act according to the Spirit of Christ in order to be able to pray in his name

If we do not want to act habitually according to the Spirit of Christ, neither can we pray habitually in his name. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2725)

…judges Francis’ idea that Christians should always humble themselves

  • Jesus clearly manifested his exalted condition as Son of God…

Peter could recognize the transcendent character of the Messiah’s divine sonship because Jesus had clearly allowed it to be so understood. To his accusers’ question before the Sanhedrin, ‘Are you the Son of God, then?’ Jesus answered, ‘You say that I am’ (Lk 22:70; cf. Mt 26:64; Mk 14:61-62). Well before this, Jesus referred to himself as ‘the Son’ who knows the Father, as distinct from the ‘servants’ God had earlier sent to his people; he is superior even to the angels (cf. Mt 11:27; 21:34-38; 24:36). He distinguished his sonship from that of his disciples by never saying ‘our Father’, except to command them: ‘You, then, pray like this: ‘Our Father’’, and he emphasized this distinction, saying ‘my Father and your Father’ (Mt 5:48; 6:8-9; 7:21; Lk 11:13; Jn 20:17). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 443)

…judges Francis’ idea on asking prayers from non-catholics and atheists

  • Prayer is communion with Christ and the Church, which is His Body

Prayer is the living relationship of the children of God with their Father who is good beyond measure, with his Son Jesus Christ and with the Holy Spirit. […] Thus, the life of prayer is the habit of being in the presence of the thrice-holy God and in communion with him. This communion of life is always possible because, through Baptism, we have already been united with Christ (Rom 6:5). Prayer is Christian insofar as it is communion with Christ and extends throughout the Church, which is his Body. Its dimensions are those of Christ’s love (Eph 3:18-21). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2565)

  • If our heart is far from God, the words of prayer are in vain

Where does prayer come from? Whether prayer is expressed in words or gestures, it is the whole man who prays. But in naming the source of prayer, Scripture speaks sometimes of the soul or the spirit, but most often of the heart (more than a thousand times). According to Scripture, it is the heart that prays. If our heart is far from God, the words of prayer are in vain. […] Christian prayer is a covenant relationship between God and man in Christ. It is the action of God and of man, springing forth from both the Holy Spirit and ourselves, wholly directed to the Father, in union with the human will of the Son of God made man. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 2562.2564)

…judges Francis’ idea on capital punishment

  • The teaching of the Church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty

The State’s effort to contain the spread of behaviors injurious to human rights and the fundamental rules of civil coexistence corresponds to the requirement of watching over the common good. Legitimate public authority has the right and duty to inflict penalties commensurate with the gravity of the crime. the primary scope of the penalty is to redress the disorder caused by the offense. When his punishment is voluntarily accepted by the offender, it takes on the value of expiation. Moreover, punishment, in addition to preserving public order and the safety of persons, has a medicinal scope: as far as possible it should contribute to the correction of the offender. (cf. Lk 23:40-43). The traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude, presupposing full ascertainment of the identity and responsibility of the offender, recourse to the death penalty, when this is the only practicable way to defend the lives of human beings effectively against the aggressor. If, instead, bloodless means are sufficient to defend against the aggressor and to protect the safety of persons, public authority should limit itself to such means, because they better correspond to the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2266-2267)

…judges Francis’ vision on the divorced who re-marry

  • The ‘remarried’ are in a situation of public and permanent adultery

Contracting a new union, [after a divorce] even if it is recognized by civil law, adds to the gravity of the rupture: the remarried spouse is then in a situation of public and permanent adultery. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2384)

  • The ‘remarriage’ of persons divorced from a living, lawful spouse contravenes the plan and law of God

The remarriage of persons divorced from a living, lawful spouse contravenes the plan and law of God as taught by Christ. They are not separated from the Church, but they cannot receive Eucharistic communion. They will lead Christian lives especially by educating their children in the faith. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1665)

  • Mortal sin causes exclusion from Christ’s kingdom and the eternal death of hell

Mortal sin is a radical possibility of human freedom, as is love itself. It results in the loss of charity and the privation of sanctifying grace, that is, of the state of grace. If it is not redeemed by repentance and God’s forgiveness, it causes exclusion from Christ’s kingdom and the eternal death of hell, for our freedom has the power to make choices for ever, with no turning back. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1861)

  • If our heart is far from God, the words of prayer are in vain

Where does prayer come from? Whether prayer is expressed in words or gestures, it is the whole man who prays. But in naming the source of prayer, Scripture speaks sometimes of the soul or the spirit, but most often of the heart (more than a thousand times). According to Scripture, it is the heart that prays. If our heart is far from God, the words of prayer are in vain. […]

Christian prayer is a covenant relationship between God and man in Christ. It is the action of God and of man, springing forth from both the Holy Spirit and ourselves, wholly directed to the Father, in union with the human will of the Son of God made man. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 2562. 2564)

…judges Francis’ idea on the indissolubility of marriage

  • Marriage cannot be dissolved by any human power

The Lord Jesus insisted on the original intention of the Creator who willed that marriage be indissoluble (cf. Mt 5:31-32; 19:3-9; Mk 10 9; Lk 16:18; 1 Cor 7:10-11). He abrogates the accommodations that had slipped into the old Law (cf. Mt 19:7-9.) Between the baptized, ‘a ratified and consummated marriage cannot be dissolved by any human power or for any reason other than death’(CIC, can. 1141.) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2382)

  • The marriage bond is an irrevocable reality and the Church does not have the power to contravene this disposition of divine wisdom

The consent by which the spouses mutually give and receive one another is sealed by God himself (cf. Mk 10:9). From their covenant arises ‘an institution, confirmed by the divine law, …even in the eyes of society’ (GS 48#1). The covenant between the spouses is integrated into God’s covenant with man: ‘Authentic married love is caught up into divine love’ (GS 48 #2). Thus the marriage bond has been established by God himself in such a way that a marriage concluded and consummated between baptized persons can never be dissolved. This bond, which results from the free human act of the spouses and their consummation of the marriage, is a reality, henceforth irrevocable, and gives rise to a covenant guaranteed by God’s fidelity. The Church does not have the power to contravene this disposition of divine wisdom (cf. CIC, can. 1141). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1639-1640)

…judges Francis’ idea on divorcees as Godparents

  • The godparent’s task is a truly ecclesial function

For the grace of Baptism to unfold, the parents’ help is important. So too is the role of the godfather and godmother, who must be firm believers, able and ready to help the newly baptized —child or adult on the road of Christian life. Their task is a truly ecclesial function (officium). The whole ecclesial community bears some responsibility for the development and safeguarding of the grace given at Baptism. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1255)

  • In fidelity to the words of Jesus Christ, the Church does not recognize second unions

Today there are numerous Catholics in many countries who have recourse to civil divorce and contract new civil unions. In fidelity to the words of Jesus Christ – ‘Whoever divorces his wife and marries another, commits adultery against her; and if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery’ (Mk 10: 11-12) The Church maintains that a new union cannot be recognized as valid, if the first marriage was. […] (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1650)

  • The ‘remarried’ cannot receive Communion as long as their situation persists – for the same reason, they cannot exercise certain ecclesial responsibilities

If the divorced are remarried civilly, they find themselves in a situation that objectively contravenes God’s law. Consequently, they cannot receive Eucharistic communion as long as this situation persists. For the same reason, they cannot exercise certain ecclesial responsibilities. Reconciliation through the sacrament of Penance can be granted only to those who have repented for having violated the sign of the covenant and of fidelity to Christ, and who are committed to living in complete continence. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1650)

…judges Francis’ ideas on finding God

  • We can be continually in the presence of God

Thus, the life of prayer is the habit of being in the presence of the thrice-holy God and in communion with him. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2565)

  • Ways of placing ourselves in the presence of God

The Lord leads all persons by paths and in ways pleasing to him, and each believer responds according to his heart’s resolve and the personal expressions of his prayer. However, Christian Tradition has retained three major expressions of prayer: vocal, meditative, and contemplative. They have one basic trait in common: composure of heart. This vigilance in keeping the Word and dwelling in the presence of God makes these three expressions intense times in the life of prayer. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2699)

…judges Francis’ ideas on the norms of the Church

  • The body of rules, commandments, and virtues proceed from faith in Christ

The Magisterium of the Pastors of the Church in moral matters is ordinarily exercised in catechesis and preaching, with the help of the works of theologians and spiritual authors. Thus from generation to generation, under the aegis and vigilance of the pastors, the ‘deposit’ of Christian moral teaching has been handed on, a deposit composed of a characteristic body of rules, commandments, and virtues proceeding from faith in Christ and animated by charity. Alongside the Creed and the Our Father, the basis for this catechesis has traditionally been the Decalogue which sets out the principles of moral life valid for all men. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2033)

  • The obligatory character of laws decreed by the pastoral authorities is meant to guarantee growth in love of God and neighbor

The precepts of the Church are set in the context of a moral life bound to and nourished by liturgical life. The obligatory character of these positive laws decreed by the pastoral authorities is meant to guarantee to the faithful the indispensable minimum in the spirit of prayer and moral effort, in the growth in love of God and neighbor (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2041)

  • Personal conscience and reason should not be set in opposition to the moral law or the Magisterium of the Church

At the same time the conscience of each person should avoid confining itself to individualistic considerations in its moral judgments of the person’s own acts. As far as possible conscience should take account of the good of all, as expressed in the moral law, natural and revealed, and consequently in the law of the Church and in the authoritative teaching of the Magisterium on moral questions. Personal conscience and reason should not be set in opposition to the moral law or the Magisterium of the Church. Thus a true filial spirit toward the Church can develop among Christians. It is the normal flowering of the baptismal grace which has begotten us in the womb of the Church and made us members of the Body of Christ. In her motherly care, the Church grants us the mercy of God which prevails over all our sins and is especially at work in the sacrament of reconciliation. With a mother’s foresight, she also lavishes on us day after day in her liturgy the nourishment of the Word and Eucharist of the Lord. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 2039-2040)

  • Even if they concern disciplinary matters these decrees call for docility in charity

The authority of the Magisterium extends also to the specific precepts of the natural law, because their observance, demanded by the Creator, is necessary for salvation. In recalling the prescriptions of the natural law, the Magisterium of the Church exercises an essential part of its prophetic office of proclaiming to men what they truly are and reminding them of what they should be before God. The law of God entrusted to the Church is taught to the faithful as the way of life and truth. The faithful therefore have the right to be instructed in the divine saving precepts that purify judgment and, with grace, heal wounded human reason. They have the duty of observing the constitutions and decrees conveyed by the legitimate authority of the Church. Even if they concern disciplinary matters, these determinations call for docility in charity. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 2036-2037)

…judges Francis’ ideas present in Laudate Si

  • The hierarchy of creatures is expressed by the order of the ‘six days’, from the less perfect to the more perfect; in creation God laid a foundation and established laws that remain firm, on which the believer can rely with confidence

The hierarchy of creatures is expressed by the order of the ‘six days’, from the less perfect to the more perfect. God loves all his creatures (cf. Ps 145:9) and takes care of each one, even the sparrow. Nevertheless, Jesus said: ‘You are of more value than many sparrows’, or again: ‘of how much more value is a man than a sheep!’ (Lk 12:6-7; Mt 12:12). Man is the summit of the Creator’s work, as the inspired account expresses by clearly distinguishing the creation of man from that of the other creatures (cf. Gen 1-26). […] In creation God laid a foundation and established laws that remain firm (Heb 4:3-4), on which the believer can rely with confidence, for they are the sign and pledge of the unshakeable faithfulness of God’s covenant (cf. Jer 31:35-37; 33:19-26). For his part man must remain faithful to this foundation, and respect the laws which the Creator has written into it. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 342-343; 346)

  • In God’s plan humans have the vocation of ‘subduing’ the earth as ‘stewards of God’

In God’s plan man and woman have the vocation of ‘subduing’ the earth (Gen 1:28) as stewards of God. This sovereignty is not to be an arbitrary and destructive domination. God calls man and woman, made in the image of the Creator ‘who loves everything that exists’ (Wis 11:24), to share in his providence toward other creatures; hence their responsibility for the world God has entrusted to them. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 373)

  • Use of the natural resources cannot be divorced from respect for moral imperatives . Some parts of the Catechism not cited in Laudato Si’

The seventh commandment enjoins respect for the integrity of creation. Animals, like plants and inanimate beings, are by nature destined for the common good of past, present, and future humanity (cf. Gen 128-31). Use of the mineral, vegetable, and animal resources of the universe cannot be divorced from respect for moral imperatives. Man’s dominion over inanimate and other living beings granted by the Creator is not absolute; it is limited by concern for the quality of life of his neighbor, including generations to come; it requires a religious respect for the integrity of creation. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2415)

  • Jesus openly entrusts to his disciples the mystery of prayer to the Father: ‘ask in his name’

When Jesus openly entrusts to his disciples the mystery of prayer to the Father, he reveals to them what their prayer and ours must be, once he has returned to the Father in his glorified humanity. What is new is to ‘ask in his name’ (Jn 14: 13). Faith in the Son introduces the disciples into the knowledge of the Father, because Jesus is ‘the way, and the truth, and the life’ (Jn 14: 6). Faith bears its fruit in love: it means keeping the word and the commandments of Jesus, it means abiding with him in the Father who, in him, so loves us that he abides with us. In this new covenant the certitude that our petitions will be heard is founded on the prayer of Jesus (Cf. Jn 14:13-14). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2614)

  • The true spirituality for all Christians in any state or walk of life: called to the fullness of Christian life and to the perfection of charity. All are called to holiness, in mystical union with Christ

‘We know that in everything God works for good with those who love him . . . For those whom he fore knew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren and those whom he predestined he also called; and those whom he called he also justified; and those whom he justified he also glorified’ (Rom 8:28-30). ‘All Christians in any state or walk of life are called to the fullness of Christian life and to the perfection of charity’ (LG 40 # 2). All are called to holiness: ‘Be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect’ (Mt 5:48). In order to reach this perfection the faithful should use the strength dealt out to them by Christ’s gift, so that… doing the will of the Father in everything, they may wholeheartedly devote themselves to the glory of God and to the service of their neighbor. Thus the holiness of the People of God will grow in fruitful abundance, as is clearly shown in the history of the Church through the lives of so many saints (LG 40 # 2). Spiritual progress tends toward ever more intimate union with Christ. This union is called ‘mystical’ because it participates in the mystery of Christ through the sacraments – ‘the holy mysteries’ – and, in him, in the mystery of the Holy Trinity. God calls us all to this intimate union with him, even if the special graces or extraordinary signs of this mystical life are granted only to some for the sake of manifesting the gratuitous gift given to all. The way of perfection passes by way of the Cross. There is no holiness without renunciation and spiritual battle (Cf. 2Tim 4). Spiritual progress entails the ascesis and mortification that gradually lead to living in the peace and joy of the Beatitudes: He who climbs never stops going from beginning to beginning, through beginnings that have no end. He never stops desiring what he already knows (St. Gregory of Nyssa, Hom. in Cant. 8). The children of our holy mother the Church rightly hope for the grace of final perseverance and the recompense of God their Father for the good works accomplished with his grace in communion with Jesus (cf. Council of Trent). Keeping the same rule of life, believers share the ‘blessed hope’ of those whom the divine mercy gathers into the ‘holy city, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband’(Rev 21:2). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2012-2016)

…judges Francis’ idea on Laudate Si

  • The Church bears a mission distinct from that of political authorities – it is concerned with temporal aspects in the measure that they are ordered to God and the good of souls

The Church makes a moral judgment about economic and social matters, ‘when the fundamental rights of the person or the salvation of souls requires it.’ In the moral order she bears a mission distinct from that of political authorities: the Church is concerned with the temporal aspects of the common good because they are ordered to the sovereign Good, our ultimate end. She strives to inspire right attitudes with respect to earthly goods and in socio-economic relationships. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2420)

  • Being in God’ image, man is worth more than sparrows and sheep

The hierarchy of creatures is expressed by the order of the ‘six days’, from the less perfect to the more perfect. God loves all his creatures (Cf. Ps 145:9) and takes care of each one, even the sparrow. Nevertheless, Jesus said: You are of more value than many sparrows’, or again: ‘of how much more value is a man than a sheep’ (Lk 12:6-7; Mt 12:12)! (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 342)

  • The work of creation finds its meaning and summit in the greater work of Redemption

Thus, the work of creation culminates in the greater work of redemption. The first creation finds its meaning and its summit in the new creation in Christ, the splendour of which surpasses that of the first creation. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 349)

…judges Francis’ idea that the Pope should not judge

  • The ‘power of the keys’ designates authority to govern the Church

Jesus entrusted a specific authority to Peter: ‘I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.’ (Mt 16:19.) The ‘power of the keys’ designates authority to govern the house of God, which is the Church. Jesus, the Good Shepherd, confirmed this mandate after his Resurrection: ‘Feed my sheep.’ (Jn 21:15-17) The power to ‘bind and loose’ connotes the authority to absolve sins, to pronounce doctrinal judgements, and to make disciplinary decisions in the Church. Jesus entrusted this authority to the Church through the ministry of the apostles (Mt 18:18) and in particular through the ministry of Peter, the only one to whom he specifically entrusted the keys of the kingdom. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 553)

  • To treat the wounds of sin, it must first be uncovered

But to do its work grace must uncover sin so as to convert our hearts and bestow on us ‘righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.’ Like a physician who probes the wound before treating it, God, by his Word and by his Spirit, casts a living light on sin…(Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1848)

  • The Church needs the dedication of pastors in applying Christian morality

In the work of teaching and applying Christian morality, the Church needs the dedication of pastors, the knowledge of theologians, and the contribution of all Christians and men of good will. […] As far as possible conscience should take account of the good of all, as expressed in the moral law, natural and revealed, and consequently in the law of the Church and in the authoritative teaching of the Magisterium on moral questions. Personal conscience and reason should not be set in opposition to the moral law or the Magisterium of the Church. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2038-2039)

  • Homosexual acts constitute a grave depravity and can under no circumstances be approved

Homosexuality refers to relations between men or between women who experience an exclusive or predominant sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex. It has taken a great variety of forms through the centuries and in different cultures. Its psychological genesis remains largely unexplained. Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity (cf. Gen 191-29; Rom 124-27). tradition has always declared that ‘homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered.’ (CDF, Persona humana 8). They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2357)

  • Homosexual persons are called to chastity

The number of men and women who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies is not negligible. They do not choose their homosexual condition; for most of them it is a trial. They must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust discrimination in their regard should be avoided. These persons are called to fulfill God’s will in their lives and, if they are Christians, to unite to the sacrifice of the Lord’s Cross the difficulties they may encounter from their condition. Homosexual persons are called to chastity. By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom, at times by the support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 2358-2359)

…judges Francis’ idea on reducing the precepts of the Church

  • The current commandments of the Church already request the bare minimum of the faithful with respect to the practice of virtue and thus attainment of eternal life; it therefore seems untimely to reduce them further

The precepts of the Church are set in the context of a moral life bound to and nourished by liturgical life. The obligatory character of these positive laws decreed by the pastoral authorities is meant to guarantee to the faithful the indispensable minimum in the spirit of prayer and moral effort, in the growth in love of God and neighbor. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2041)

…judges Francis’ idea on equality as the source of justice and happiness

  • The ‘talents’ were not distributed equally – differences belong to God’s plan

On coming into the world, man is not equipped with everything he needs for developing his bodily and spiritual life. He needs others. Differences appear tied to age, physical abilities, intellectual or moral aptitudes, the benefits derived from social commerce, and the distribution of wealth (cf. GS 29 # 2). The ‘talents’ are not distributed equally (cf. Mt 25:14-30; Lk 19:27). These differences belong to God’s plan, who wills that each receive what he needs from others, and that those endowed with particular ‘talents’ share the benefits with those who need them. These differences encourage and often oblige persons to practice generosity, kindness, and sharing of goods; they foster the mutual enrichment of cultures. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1936, 1937)

…judges Francis’ idea on the immortality of the soul

  • Every spiritual soul is created immediately by God

The Church teaches that every spiritual soul is created immediately by God – it is not ‘produced’ by the parents – and also that it is immortal: it does not perish when it separates from the body at death, and it will be reunited with the body at the final Resurrection (cf. Pius XII. Humani generis; Paul VI, CPC # 8; Lateran Council V). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 366)

  • Not only will the immortal soul live on after death, but even our mortal body will come to life again

The ‘resurrection of the flesh’ (the literal formulation of the Apostles’ Creed) means not only that the immortal soul will live on after death, but that even our ‘mortal body’ will come to life again (Rom 8:11). Belief in the resurrection of the dead has been an essential element of the Christian faith from its beginnings. ‘The confidence of Christians is the resurrection of the dead; believing this we live’ (Tertullian, De res, 1,1: PL 2, 841). How can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ has not been raised; if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain…. But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep (1Cor 15:12-14). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 990-991)

  • The immortal soul awaits its reunion with the glorified body

What is ‘rising’?
In death, the separation of the soul from the body, the human body decays and the soul goes to meet God, while awaiting its reunion with its glorified body. God, in his almighty power, will definitively grant incorruptible life to our bodies by reuniting them with our souls, through the power of Jesus’ Resurrection.
Who will rise?
All the dead will rise, ‘those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment’(Jn 5:29; cf. Dan 12:2). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 997-998)

  • Each man receives his eternal retribution in his immortal soul

Death puts an end to human life as the time open to either accepting or rejecting the divine grace manifested in Christ (cf. 2Tim 1:9-10). The New Testament speaks of judgment primarily in its aspect of the final encounter with Christ in his second coming, but also repeatedly affirms that each will be rewarded immediately after death in accordance with his works and faith. The parable of the poor man Lazarus (cf. Lk 16:22) and the words of Christ on the cross to the good thief (Lk 23:43), as well as other New Testament texts (2Cor 5:8; Phil 1:23; Heb 9:27; 12:23)) speak of a final destiny of the soula destiny which can be different for some and for others (Mt 16:26). Each man receives his eternal retribution in his immortal soul at the very moment of his death, in a particular judgment that refers his life to Christ: either entrance into the blessedness of heaven – through a purification (cf. Council of Lyons II: DS 857-858; Council of Florence: DS 1304- 1306; Council of Trent (1563): DS 1820.) or immediately (cf. Benedict XII. Benedictus Deus: DS 1000-1001; John XXII, Ne super his: DS 990) – or immediate and everlasting damnation (cf. Benedict XII. Benedictus Deus: DS 1002.) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 1021-1022)

  • God wills the salvation of everyone

“Having been divinely sent to the nations that she might be ‘the universal sacrament of salvation,’ the Church, in obedience to the command of her founder and because it is demanded by her own essential universality, strives to preach the Gospel to all men” (Ad Gentes 1): ‘Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and Lo, I am with you always, until the close of the age’ (Mt 28:19-20). […] Missionary motivation. It is from God’s love for all men that the Church in every age receives both the obligation and the vigor of her missionary dynamism, ‘for the love of Christ urges us on’ (2Cor 5:14; cf. Apostolicam actuositatem 6; Redemptoris missio 11). Indeed, God ‘desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth’; (1Tim 2:4) that is, God wills the salvation of everyone through the knowledge of the truth. Salvation is found in the truth. Those who obey the prompting of the Spirit of truth are already on the way of salvation. But the Church, to whom this truth has been entrusted, must go out to meet their desire, so as to bring them the truth. Because she believes in God’s universal plan of salvation, the Church must be missionary. […] By her very mission, ‘the Church . . . travels the same journey as all humanity and shares the same earthly lot with the world: she is to be a leaven and, as it were, the soul of human society in its renewal by Christ and transformation into the family of God’ (Gaudium et spes 40 # 2). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 849; 851; 854)

…judges Francis’ idea on God’s omnipotence

  • God who created everything also rules everything

Of all the divine attributes, only God’s omnipotence is named in the Creed: to confess this power has great bearing on our lives. We believe that his might is universal, for God who created everything (cf. Gen 1:1; Jn 1:3) also rules everything and can do everything (Ps 115:3). God’s power is loving, for he is our Father. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 268)

  • God is master of history: governing hearts and events in keeping with his will

The Holy Scriptures repeatedly confess the universal power of God. He is called the ‘Mighty One of Jacob’ (Gen 49:24; Is 1:24), the ‘Lord of hosts’, the ‘strong and mighty’ one (Ps 24:8-10). If God is almighty ‘in heaven and on earth’ (Ps 135:6), it is because he made them. Nothing is impossible with God (Jer 32:17; Lk 1:37), who disposes his works according to his will (cf. Jer 27:5). He is the Lord of the universe, whose order he established and which remains wholly subject to him and at his disposal. He is master of history, governing hearts and events in keeping with his will (cf. Esth 4:17b; Prov 21:1; Tob 13:2): ‘It is always in your power to show great strength, and who can withstand the strength of your arm?’ (Wis 11:2). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 269)

  • God created the world according to his wisdom

We believe that God created the world according to his wisdom (cf. Wis 9:9). It is not the product of any necessity whatever, nor of blind fate or chance. We believe that it proceeds from God’s free will; he wanted to make his creatures share in his being, wisdom and goodness: ‘For you created all things, and by your will they existed and were created’ (Rev 4:11). Therefore the Psalmist exclaims: ‘O Lord, how manifold are your works! In wisdom you have made them all’; and ‘The Lord is good to all, and his compassion is over all that he has made’ (Ps 104:24; 145:9). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 295)

  • God gives his creatures being and existence and brings them to their final end

With creation, God does not abandon his creatures to themselves. He not only gives them being and existence, but also, and at every moment, upholds and sustains them in being, enables them to act and brings them to their final end. Recognizing this utter dependence with respect to the Creator is a source of wisdom and freedom, of joy and confidence… (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 301)

  • Without a Creator the creature vanishes

The truth that God is at work in all the actions of his creatures is inseparable from faith in God the Creator. God is the first cause who operates in and through secondary causes: ‘For God is at work in you, both to will and to work for his good pleasure’ (Phil 2:13; cf. 1Cor 12:6). Far from diminishing the creature’s dignity, this truth enhances it. Drawn from nothingness by God’s power, wisdom and goodness, it can do nothing if it is cut off from its origin, for ‘without a Creator the creature vanishes’ (Gaudium et Spes 36, 3). Still less can a creature attain its ultimate end without the help of God’s grace (cf. Mt 19:26; Jn 15:5; Phil 14:13). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 308)

…judges Francis’ idea on the role of non-christian religions

  • We cannot accept ‘revelations’ that claim to surpass the Revelation of which Christ is the fulfilment

Christian faith cannot accept ‘revelations’ that claim to surpass or correct the Revelation of which Christ is the fulfilment, as is the case in certain nonChristian religions and also in certain recent sects which base themselves on such ‘revelations’. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 67)

…judges Francis’ idea on the laicity of the State

  • To the Church belongs the right to announce moral principles, including those pertaining to the social order

The Church, the ‘pillar and bulwark of the truth,’ ‘has received this solemn command of Christ from the apostles to announce the saving truth’ (1Tim 3:15; LG 17). ‘To the Church belongs the right always and everywhere to announce moral principles, including those pertaining to the social order, and to make judgments on any human affairs to the extent that they are required by the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls’ (CIC, can. 747 # 2). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2032)

  • The Church makes a moral judgment about economic and social matters, inspiring right attitudes with respect to socio-economic relationships

The Church receives from the Gospel the full revelation of the truth about man. When she fulfills her mission of proclaiming the Gospel, she bears witness to man, in the name of Christ, to his dignity and his vocation to the communion of persons. She teaches him the demands of justice and peace in conformity with divine wisdom. The Church makes a moral judgment about economic and social matters, ‘when the fundamental rights of the person or the salvation of souls requires it’ (Gaudium et Spes, 76). In the moral order she bears a mission distinct from that of political authorities: the Church is concerned with the temporal aspects of the common good because they are ordered to the sovereign Good, our ultimate end. She strives to inspire right attitudes with respect to earthly goods and in socio-economic relationships. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2419-2420)

…judges Francis’ idea on the multiplication of the loaves

  • Christ’s deeds, miracles and words: what was visible in his earthly life leads to the invisible mystery of his divine sonship and redemptive mission

The Gospels were written by men who were among the first to have the faith (cf. Mk 1:1; Jn 21:24) and wanted to share it with others. Having known in faith who Jesus is, they could see and make others see the traces of his mystery in all his earthly life. From the swaddling clothes of his birth to the vinegar of his Passion and the shroud of his Resurrection, everything in Jesus’ life was a sign of his mystery (cf Lk 2:7; Mt 27: 48; Jn 20:7). His deeds, miracles and words all revealed that ‘in him the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily’ (Col 2:9). His humanity appeared as ‘sacrament’, that is, the sign and instrument, of his divinity and of the salvation he brings: what was visible in his earthly life leads to the invisible mystery of his divine sonship and redemptive mission. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 515)

…judges Francis’ idea on the formation of consciences

  • We are guided by the authoritative teaching of the Church

In the formation of conscience the Word of God is the light for our path (Ps 119:105), we must assimilate it in faith and prayer and put it into practice. We must also examine our conscience before the Lord’s Cross. We are assisted by the gifts of the Holy Spirit, aided by the witness or advice of others and guided by the authoritative teaching of the Church (cf DzH 14). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1785)

  • The conscience of each person should avoid confining itself to individualistic considerations; and should not be set in opposition to the Magisterium

Ministries should be exercised in a spirit of fraternal service and dedication to the Church, in the name of the Lord (Rom 12:8,11). At the same time the conscience of each person should avoid confining itself to individualistic considerations in its moral judgments of the person’s own acts. As far as possible conscience should take account of the good of all, as expressed in the moral law, natural and revealed, and consequently in the law of the Church and in the authoritative teaching of the Magisterium on moral questions. Personal conscience and reason should not be set in opposition to the moral law or the Magisterium of the Church. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2039)

…judges Francis’ idea on our sins drawing us close to Jesus

  • Sacrilege is especially grave when committed against the Eucharist

Sacrilege is a grave sin especially when committed against the Eucharist, for in this sacrament the true Body of Christ is made substantially present for us (cf. CIC, cann. 1367; 1376.) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2120)

  • The two conversions: the water of Baptism and the tears of repentance

Christ’s call to conversion continues to resound in the lives of Christians. This second conversion is an uninterrupted task for the whole Church who, ‘clasping sinners to her bosom, (is) at once holy and always in need of purification, (and) follows constantly the path of penance and renewal’ (LG 8,3). This endeavor of conversion is not just a human work. It is the movement of a ‘contrite heart,’ drawn and moved by grace to respond to the merciful love of God who loved us first (Ps 51:17; cf. Jn 6:44; 12:32; 1Jn 4:10). […] Saint Ambrose says of the two conversions that, in the Church, ‘there are water and tears: the water of Baptism and the tears of repentance’ (Saint Ambrose, ep. 41, 12) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1428; 1429)

  • Conversion entails both God’s forgiveness and reconciliation with the Church, which are accomplished by the sacrament of Penance

Sin is before all else an offense against God, a rupture of communion with him. At the same time it damages communion with the Church. For this reason conversion entails both God’s forgiveness and reconciliation with the Church, which are expressed and accomplished liturgically by the sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation. (Cf. LG 11.) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1440)

…judges Francis’ idea on knowing God’s will from the people

  • The Magisterium’s task is to preserve God’s people from deviations, to guarantee them the possibility of professing the true faith without error

In order to preserve the Church in the purity of the faith handed on by the apostles, Christ who is the Truth willed to confer on her a share in his own infallibility. By a ‘supernatural sense of faith’ the People of God, under the guidance of the Church’s living Magisterium, ‘unfailingly adheres to this faith’ (LG 12; cf. DV 10). The mission of the Magisterium is linked to the definitive nature of the covenant established by God with his people in Christ. It is this Magisterium’s task to preserve God’s people from deviations and defections and to guarantee them the objective possibility of professing the true faith without error. Thus, the pastoral duty of the Magisterium is aimed at seeing to it that the People of God abides in the truth that liberates. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 889-890)

…judges Francis’ idea on the essence of divinity

  • The Creed is the first and fundamental point of reference: a sign of communion between believers

Such syntheses are called ‘professions of faith’ since they summarize the faith that Christians profess. They are called ‘creeds’ on account of what is usually their first word in Latin: credo (‘I believe’). They are also called ‘symbols of faith’. The Greek word symbolon meant half of a broken object, for example, a seal presented as a token of recognition. The broken parts were placed together to verify the bearer’s identity. The symbol of faith, then, is a sign of recognition and communion between believers. Symbolon also means a gathering, collection or summary. A symbol of faith is a summary of the principal truths of the faith and therefore serves as the first and fundamental point of reference for catechesis. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 187-188)

  • Belief in the Catholic Church is inseparable from faith in God

To believe that the Church is ‘holy’ and ‘catholic,’ and that she is ‘one’ and ‘apostolic’ (as the Nicene Creed adds), is inseparable from belief in God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. In the Apostles’ Creed we profess ‘one Holy Church’ (Credo . . . Ecclesiam), and not to believe in the Church, so as not to confuse God with his works and to attribute clearly to God’s goodness all the gifts he has bestowed on his Church (cf. Roman Catechism I,10,22). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 750)

…judges Francis’ idea that no one is saved alone

  • Each one will be rewarded in accordance with his works and faith

Death puts an end to human life as the time open to either accepting or rejecting the divine grace manifested in Christ (cf. 2 Tim 1:9-10). The New Testament speaks of judgment primarily in its aspect of the final encounter with Christ in his second coming, but also repeatedly affirms that each will be rewarded immediately after death in accordance with his works and faith. The parable of the poor man Lazarus (Lk 16:22) and the words of Christ on the cross to the good thief (Lk 23:43), as well as other New Testament texts (2Cor 5:8; Phil 1:23; Heb 9:27; 12:23) speak of a final destiny of the soul -a destiny which can be different for some and for others (Mt 16:26). Each man receives his eternal retribution in his immortal soul at the very moment of his death, in a particular judgment that refers his life to Christ: either entrance into the blessedness of heaven-through a purification (Council of Lyons II (1274): DS 857-858; Council of Florence (1439): DS 1304- 1306; Council of Trent (1563): DS 1820.) or immediately (cf. Benedict XII. Benedictus Deus (1336): DS 1000-1001; John XXII. Ne super his (1334): DS 990) – or immediate and everlasting damnation (cf. Benedict XII. Benedictus Deus (1336): DS 1002). At the evening of life, we shall be judged on our love. (Saint John of the Cross. Dichos, 64). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1021-1022)

  • To die in mortal sin means being forever separated from God– no one can be united with Him without freely choosing to love him

We cannot be united with God unless we freely choose to love him. But we cannot love God if we sin gravely against him, against our neighbor or against ourselves: ‘He who does not love remains in death. Anyone who hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life abiding in him’ (Jn 3:14-15). Our Lord warns us that we shall be separated from him if we fail to meet the serious needs of the poor and the little ones who are his brethren (Mt 25:31-46). To die in mortal sin without repenting and accepting God’s merciful love means remaining separated from him for ever by our own free choice. This state of definitive self-exclusion from communion with God and the blessed is called ‘hell.’ (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1033)

…judges Francis’ idea on the flesh of Christ and poverty as a theological category

  • The Word speaks of voluntary humility as ‘poverty in spirit’

The precept of detachment from riches is obligatory for entrance into the Kingdom of heaven. All Christ’s faithful are to ‘direct their affections rightly, lest they be hindered in their pursuit of perfect charity by the use of worldly things and by an adherence to riches which is contrary to the spirit of evangelical poverty’ (LG 4/ 3). […] “The Word speaks of voluntary humility as ‘poverty in spirit’; the Apostle gives an example of God’s poverty when he says: ‘For your sakes he became poor’” (St. Gregory of Nyssa, De beatitudinibus 1; cf. 2Cor 8:9). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 2544-2546)

  • One participates in the grace of Christ by Baptism

Grace is a participation in the life of God. It introduces us into the intimacy of Trinitarian life: by Baptism the Christian participates in the grace of Christ, the Head of his Body. As an ‘adopted son’ he can henceforth call God ‘Father’, in union with the only Son. He receives the life of the Spirit who breathes charity into him and who forms the Church. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1997)

…judges Francis’ idea on the faith in God

  • Christ is the perfect Word – In Him the Father has said everything

“In many and various ways God spoke of old to our fathers by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son” (Heb 1:1-2). Christ, the Son of God made man, is the Father’s one, perfect and unsurpassable Word. In him he has said everything; there will be no other word than this one. St. John of the Cross(The Ascent of Mount Carmel 2,22,3-5), among others, commented strikingly on Hebrews 1:1-2: “In giving us his Son, his only Word (for he possesses no other), he spoke everything to us at once in this sole Word – and he has no more to say. . . because what he spoke before to the prophets in parts, he has now spoken all at once by giving us the All Who is His Son. Any person questioning God or desiring some vision or revelation would be guilty not only of foolish behavior but also of offending him, by not fixing his eyes entirely upon Christ and by living with the desire for some other novelty. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 65)

…judges Francis’ idea on Christ at the Final Judgment

  • Culpable unbelief that counted the offer of God’s grace as nothing will be condemned

Jesus announced the judgment of the Last Day in his preaching. Then will the conduct of each one (cf. Mk 12:38-40) and the secrets of hearts be brought to light (Lk 12:1-3; Jn 3:20-21; Rom 2:16; 1Cor 4:5). Then will the culpable unbelief that counted the offer of God’s grace as nothing be condemned (Mt 11:20-24; 12:41-42). Our attitude to our neighbour will disclose acceptance or refusal of grace and divine love (Mt 5:22; 7:1-5). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 678)

  • Judgment Day will be the definitive triumph of good over evil

On Judgement Day at the end of the world, Christ will come in glory to achieve the definitive triumph of good over evil which, like the wheat and the tares, have grown up together in the course of history. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 681)

…judges Francis’ idea on doing good

  • By reason, man recognizes the God’s voice urging to do good and avoid evil: to love God and neighbor

By his reason, man recognizes the voice of God which urges him ‘to do what is good and avoid what is evil’ (GS 16). Everyone is obliged to follow this law, which makes itself heard in conscience and is fulfilled in the love of God and of neighbor. Living a moral life bears witness to the dignity of the person. […] By his Passion, Christ delivered us from Satan and from sin. He merited for us the new life in the Holy Spirit. His grace restores what sin had damaged in us. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1706, 1708)

  • What makes us adopted sons of God is Baptism

Baptism not only purifies from all sins, but also makes the neophyte ‘a new creature’ (2Cor 5:17), an adopted son of God (Gal 4:5-7), who has become a ‘partaker of the divine nature’ (2Pet 1:4), member of Christ (1Cor 6:15; 12:27) and coheir with him (Rom 8:17), and a temple of the Holy Spirit (1Cor 6:19). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1265)

  • God gives us his grace to become children of God

Our justification comes from the grace of God. Grace is favor, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to become children of God (Jn 1:12-18), adoptive sons (Rom 8:14-17), partakers of the divine nature (2 Pet 1:3-4) and of eternal life (Jn 17:3). Grace is a participation in the life of God. It introduces us into the intimacy of Trinitarian life: by Baptism the Christian participates in the grace of Christ, the Head of his Body. As an ‘adopted son’ he can henceforth call God ‘Father,’ in union with the only Son. He receives the life of the Spirit who breathes charity into him and who forms the Church. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1996, 1997)

  • Divine adoption alone makes us capable of following Christ’s example: doing good

He who believes in Christ becomes a son of God. This filial adoption transforms him by giving him the ability to follow the example of Christ. It makes him capable of acting rightly and doing good. In union with his Savior, the disciple attains the perfection of charity which is holiness. Having matured in grace, the moral life blossoms into eternal life in the glory of heaven. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1709)

…judges Francis’ idea on boasting of our sins

  • Only faith can discern God’s power when it ‘is made perfect in weakness’

Of all the divine attributes, only God’s omnipotence is named in the Creed: to confess this power has great bearing on our lives. We believe that his might is universal, for God who created everything also rules everything and can do everything. God’s power is loving, for he is our Father, and mysterious, for only faith can discern it when it ‘is made perfect in weakness.’ (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 268)

  • God’s almighty power shows forth by converting us from our sins

God shows forth his almighty power by converting us from our sins and restoring us to his friendship by grace. ‘God, you show your almighty power above all in your mercy and forgiveness. . .’ (Roman Missal, 26th Sunday, Opening Prayer). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 277)

  • There is no holiness without renunciation and spiritual battle

The way of perfection passes by way of the Cross. There is no holiness without renunciation and spiritual battle. Spiritual progress entails the ascesis and mortification that gradually lead to living in the peace and joy of the Beatitudes. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2015)

  • Sin is love of oneself unto contempt of God – it is diametrically opposed to obedience which achieves salvation

Sin is thus ‘love of oneself even to contempt of God.’ (St. Augustine, De civ. Dei 14, 28) In this proud self-exaltation, sin is diametrically opposed to the obedience of Jesus, which achieves our salvation (cf. Phil 2:6-9). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1850)

  • Sin turns our hearts away from God’s love for us

Sin sets itself against God’s love for us and turns our hearts away from it. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1850)

  • To receive God’s mercy we must admit our faults

‘God created us without us: but he did not will to save us without us’ (St. Augustine, Sermon 169, 11-13). To receive his mercy, we must admit our faults. ‘If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just, and will forgive our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness’ (Jn 8-9). As Saint Paul affirms, ‘Where sin increased, grace abounded all the more’ (Rom 5:20). But to do its work grace must uncover sin so as to convert our hearts and bestow on us ‘righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord’ (Rom 5:21). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1847-1848)

…judges the act of seeking blessings from heretics and schismatics

  • Blessings are granted through the intercession of the Church

Among the sacramentals blessings occupy an important place. They include both praise of God for his works and gifts, and the Church’s intercession for men that they may be able to use God’s gifts according to the spirit of the Gospel. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1678)

…judges Francis’ idea on sin and mercy

  • Those who do not repent reject pardon and eternal salvation

There are no limits to the mercy of God, but anyone who deliberately refuses to accept his mercy by repenting, rejects the forgiveness of his sins and the salvation offered by the Holy Spirit (cf. John Paul II, DeV 46). Such hardness of heart can lead to final impenitence and eternal loss. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1864)

  • A first sin prepares for many others

Sin creates a proclivity to sin; it engenders vice by repetition of the same acts. This results in perverse inclinations which cloud conscience and corrupt the concrete judgment of good and evil. Thus sin tends to reproduce itself and reinforce itself, but it cannot destroy the moral sense at its root. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1865)

  • The consequences of venial sin

Venial sin weakens charity; it manifests a disordered affection for created goods; it impedes the soul’s progress in the exercise of the virtues and the practice of the moral good; it merits temporal punishment. Deliberate and unrepented venial sin disposes us little by little to commit mortal sin. However venial sin does not set us in direct opposition to the will and friendship of God; it does not break the covenant with God. With God’s grace it is humanly reparable. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1863)

  • One is condemned to the eternal death of hell if one’s mortal sins are not redeemed by repentance and God’s forgiveness

Mortal sin is a radical possibility of human freedom, as is love itself. It results in the loss of charity and the privation of sanctifying grace, that is, of the state of grace. If it is not redeemed by repentance and God’s forgiveness, it causes exclusion from Christ’s kingdom and the eternal death of hell, for our freedom has the power to make choices for ever, with no turning back. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1861)

…judges Francis’ idea on communion to divorced in second union

  • The Church does not have the power to contravene the divine wisdom

Thus the marriage bond has been established by God himself in such a way that a marriage concluded and consummated between baptized persons can never be dissolved. This bond, which results from the free human act of the spouses and their consummation of the marriage, is a reality, henceforth irrevocable, and gives rise to a covenant guaranteed by God’s fidelity. The Church does not have the power to contravene this disposition of divine wisdom. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1640)

…judges Francis’ idea on the incapacity of the Church to resolve the crisis of the family

  • Christ alone gives spouses strength and grace to ‘receive’ the original meaning of marriage and live it

By coming to restore the original order of creation disturbed by sin, he himself gives the strength and grace to live marriage in the new dimension of the Reign of God. It is by following Christ, renouncing themselves, and taking up their crosses that spouses will be able to ‘receive’ the original meaning of marriage and live it with the help of Christ (Mt 19:11). This grace of Christian marriage is a fruit of Christ’s cross, the source of all Christian life. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1615)

…judges Francis’ idea on eternal condemnation

  • Unquenchable fire is reserved for those who refuse to believe and be converted

Jesus often speaks of ‘Gehenna’ of ‘the unquenchable fire’ reserved for those who to the end of their lives refuse to believe and be converted, where both soul and body can be lost (cf. Mt 5:22, 29; 10:28; 13:42, 50; Mk 9:43-48). Jesus solemnly proclaims that he ‘will send his angels, and they will gather . . . all evil doers, and throw them into the furnace of fire’ (Mt 13:41-42), and that he will pronounce the condemnation: ‘Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire!’(Mt 25:41) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1034)

  • The souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell, where they suffer eternally

 The teaching of the Church affirms the existence of hell and its eternity. Immediately after death the souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell, where they suffer the punishments of hell, ‘eternal fire’ (DS 76; 409; 411; 801; 858; 1002; 1351; 1575; Paul VI, Credo of the People God #12). The chief punishment of hell is eternal separation from God, in whom alone man can possess the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1035)

…judges Francis’ idea on the impossibility of finding God with entire certainty

  • To his disciples Jesus teaches the unconditional love of truth: Let what you say be simply ‘Yes or No’

The Old Testament attests that God is the source of all truth. His Word is truth (cf. Prov 8:7; 2 Sam 7:28). His Law is truth (cf. Ps 119:90). His faithfulness endures to all generations (Ps 119:142; Lk 1:50). Since God is ‘true’ (Rom 3:4), the members of his people are called to live in the truth (cf. Ps 119:30). In Jesus Christ, the whole of God’s truth has been made manifest. ‘Full of grace and truth’ (Jn 1:14), he came as the ‘light of the world’ (Jn 8:12), he is the Truth (cf. 14:6). ‘Whoever believes in me may not remain in darkness’ (Jn 12:46). The disciple of Jesus continues in his word so as to know ‘the truth [that] will make you free’ (cf. Jn 8:32) and that sanctifies (cf. Jn 17:17). To follow Jesus is to live in ‘the Spirit of truth,’ whom the Father sends in his name and who leads ‘into all the truth’ (Jn 16:13). To his disciples Jesus teaches the unconditional love of truth: ‘Let what you say be simply ‘Yes or No’ (Mt 5:37). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 2465-2466)

  • A Christian should confess the faith without equivocation

The Christian is not to ‘be ashamed then of testifying to our Lord’ (2Tim 1:8). In situations that require witness to the faith, the Christian must profess it without equivocation. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2471)

  • Doubt can lead to spiritual blindness – the first commandment requires us to protect our faith

The first commandment requires us to nourish and protect our faith with prudence and vigilance, and to reject everything that is opposed to it. There are various ways of sinning against faith:

Voluntary doubt about the faith disregards or refuses to hold as true what God has revealed and the Church proposes for belief.
Involuntary doubt refers to hesitation in believing, difficulty in overcoming objections connected with the faith, or also anxiety aroused by its obscurity. If deliberately cultivated doubt can lead to spiritual blindness.
Incredulity
is the neglect of revealed truth or the willful refusal to assent to it. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 2088-2089)

  • Offenses against truth are fundamental infidelities to God

The eighth commandment forbids misrepresenting the truth in our relations with others. This moral prescription flows from the vocation of the holy people to bear witness to their God who is the truth and wills the truth. Offenses against the truth express by word or deed a refusal to commit oneself to moral uprightness: they are fundamental infidelities to God and, in this sense, they undermine the foundations of the covenant. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2464)

  • The prayer of Jesus is the foundation of our certainties

Faith bears its fruit in love: it means keeping the word and the commandments of Jesus, it means abiding with him in the Father who, in him, so loves us that he abides with us. In this new covenant the certitude that our petitions will be heard is founded on the prayer of Jesus (Cf. Jn 14:13-14). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2614)

  • Man has the obligation to seek the truth and to embrace it

‘All men are bound to seek the truth, especially in what concerns God and his Church, and to embrace it and hold on to it as they come to know it’ (DH 1 no. 2). This duty derives from ‘the very dignity of the human person’ (DH 2 no. 1). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2104)

  • Man tends by nature toward the truth, and is obliged to honor and bear witness to it – especially religious truth

Man tends by nature toward the truth. He is obliged to honor and bear witness to it: ‘It is in accordance with their dignity that all men, because they are persons . . . are both impelled by their nature and bound by a moral obligation to seek the truth, especially religious truth. They are also bound to adhere to the truth once they come to know it and direct their whole lives in accordance with the demands of truth.’ (DH 2 no. 2.) (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2467)

  • The Magisterium’s task is to guarantee God’s people the objective possibility of professing the true faith without error

The mission of the Magisterium is linked to the definitive nature of the covenant established by God with his people in Christ. It is this Magisterium’s task to preserve God’s people from deviations and defections and to guarantee them the objective possibility of professing the true faith without error. Thus, the pastoral duty of the Magisterium is aimed at seeing to it that the People of God abides in the truth that liberates. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 890)

…judges Francis’ idea on God

  • Those who know the Church but deny it, shall not be saved

 171. What is the meaning of the affirmation ‘Outside the Church there is no salvation’? (846-848)

This means that all salvation comes from Christ, the Head, through the Church which is his body. Hence they cannot be saved who, knowing the Church as founded by Christ and necessary for salvation, would refuse to enter her or remain in her. At the same time, thanks to Christ and to his Church, those who through no fault of their own do not know the Gospel of Christ and his Church but sincerely seek God and, moved by grace, try to do his will as it is known through the dictates of conscience can attain eternal salvation. (Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, no 171)

…judges Francis’ idea on the liberty of conscience

  • A good intention does not justify any human act – one may not do evil so that good may result from it

It is therefore an error to judge the morality of human acts by considering only the intention that inspires them or the circumstances (environment, social pressure, duress or emergency, etc.) which supply their context. There are acts which, in and of themselves, independently of circumstances and intentions, are always gravely illicit by reason of their object; such as blasphemy and perjury, murder and adultery. One may not do evil so that good may result from it. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1756)

…judges Francis’ idea on First Holy Communion

  • Foundation of life in Christ

Holy Communion augments our union with Christ. The principal fruit of receiving the Eucharist in Holy Communion is an intimate union with Christ Jesus. Indeed, the Lord said: ‘He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him’ (Jn 6:56). Life in Christ has its foundation in the Eucharistic banquet: ‘As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me’ (Jn 6:57). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1391)

  • The Eucharist brings about unity among true believers

The Church is a ‘communion of saints’: this expression refers first to the ‘holy things’ (sancta), above all the Eucharist, by which ‘the unity of believers, who form one body in Christ, is both represented and brought about’ (LG 3). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 960)

…judges Francis’ idea on God’s presence in a sinner’s life

  • No one can be united with God without freely choosing to love Him

We cannot be united with God unless we freely choose to love him. But we cannot love God if we sin gravely against him, against our neighbor or against ourselves: ‘He who does not love remains in death. Anyone who hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life abiding in him’ (Jn 3:14-15). Our Lord warns us that we shall be separated from him if we fail to meet the serious needs of the poor and the little ones who are his brethren (Mt 25:31-46). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1033)

…judges Francis’ idea on the harmony of all christian faiths

  • The principle of ‘unity in diversity’ expressed as it really is

814. From the beginning, this one Church has been marked by a great diversity which comes from both the variety of God’s gifts and the diversity of those who receive them. Within the unity of the People of God, a multiplicity of peoples and cultures is gathered together. Among the Church’s members, there are different gifts, offices, conditions, and ways of life. ‘Holding a rightful place in the communion of the Church there are also particular Churches that retain their own traditions’ (LG 13). The great richness of such diversity is not opposed to the Church’s unity. Yet sin and the burden of its consequences constantly threaten the gift of unity. and so the Apostle has to exhort Christians to ‘maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace’ (Eph 4:3).
815. What are these bonds of unity? Above all, charity ‘binds everything together in perfect harmony’ (Col 3:14). But the unity of the pilgrim Church is also assured by visible bonds of communion: —
— profession of one faith received from the Apostles;
— common celebration of divine worship, especially of the sacraments;
— apostolic succession through the sacrament of Holy Orders, maintaining the fraternal concord of God’s family
  (cf. UR 2; LG 14; CIC, can. 205). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 814, 815)

…judges Francis’ idea on who decides what is good and evil

  • Erroneous judgment of conscience may be culpable

1786 Faced with a moral choice, conscience can make either a right judgment in accordance with reason and the divine law or, on the contrary, an erroneous judgment that departs from them.

1790 A human being must always obey the certain judgment of his conscience. If he were deliberately to act against it, he would condemn himself. Yet it can happen that moral conscience remains in ignorance and makes erroneous judgments about acts to be performed or already committed.

1791 This ignorance can often be imputed to personal responsibility. This is the case when a man “takes little trouble to find out what is true and good, or when conscience is by degrees almost blinded through the habit of committing sin.”59 In such cases, the person is culpable for the evil he commits. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1786,1790-1791)

…judges Francis’ relations with  ‘ordained’ women of the christian churches

  • Ecclesial communities born of the Reformation do not have the Sacrament of Holy Orders

 Ecclesial communities derived from the Reformation and separated from the Catholic Church, ‘have not preserved the proper reality of the Eucharistic mystery in its fullness, especially because of the absence of the sacrament of Holy Orders.’ (Unit. Redint. 22). It is for this reason that Eucharistic intercommunion with these communities is not possible for the Catholic Church. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1400)

  • The ordination of women is not possible

The Lord Jesus chose men (viri) to form the college of the twelve apostles, and the apostles did the same when they chose collaborators to succeed them in their ministry (cf. Mk 3:14-19; Lk 6:12-16; 1Tim 3:1-13; 2Tim 1:6; Titus 1:5-9; St. Clement of Rome  Ad Cor. 42, 4; 44, 3). The college of bishops, with whom the priests are united in the priesthood, makes the college of the twelve an ever-present and ever-active reality until Christ’s return. The Church recognizes herself to be bound by this choice made by the Lord himself. For this reason the ordination of women is not possible (cf. John Paul II, MD 26-27; CDF, Declaration Inter insigniores). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1577)

…judges Francis’ idea on responsible parenthood

  • Large families are a sign of God’s blessing

So the Church, which ‘is on the side of life’ (Familiaris consortio, no. 30) teaches that ‘each and every marriage act must remain open ‘per se’ to the transmission of life’ (Humanae vitae, no. 11). […] Called to give life, spouses share in the creative power and fatherhood of God (cf. Eph 3:14, Mt 23:9). ‘Married couples should regard it as their proper mission to transmit human life and to educate their children; they should realize that they are thereby cooperating with the love of God the Creator and are, in a certain sense, its interpreters. They will fulfill this duty with a sense of human and Christian responsibility.’ (Gaudium et Spes, no. 50, 2). […] Sacred Scripture and the Church’s traditional practice see in large families a sign of God’s blessing and the parents’ generosity. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 2366-2367, 2373)

…judges Francis’ idea on all being saved

  • To die in mortal sin is to separate oneself from God forever by free choice

We cannot be united with God unless we freely choose to love him. But we cannot love God if we sin gravely against him, against our neighbor or against ourselves: ‘He who does not love remains in death. Anyone who hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life abiding in him’ (1Jn 3:14-15). Our Lord warns us that we shall be separated from him if we fail to meet the serious needs of the poor and the little ones who are his brethren (Mt 25:31- 46). To die in mortal sin without repenting and accepting God’s merciful love means remaining separated from him forever by our own free choice. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1033)

…judges Francis’ idea on the access to the sacraments

  • Confirmation also requires the state of grace

To receive Confirmation one must be in a state of grace. One should receive the sacrament of Penance in order to be cleansed for the gift of the Holy Spirit. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1310)

  •  Necessity of confessing mortal sins in order to approach the Eucharistic table

Anyone conscious of a grave sin must receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before coming to communion. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1385)

  • Eucharistic ‘intercommunion’ with communities derived from the ‘Reformation’ is not possible

Ecclesial communities derived from the Reformation and separated from the Catholic Church, ‘have not preserved the proper reality of the Eucharistic mystery in its fullness, especially because of the absence of the sacrament of Holy Orders’ (UR 22). It is for this reason that Eucharistic intercommunion with these communities is not possible for the Catholic Church. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1400)

 …judges Francis’ idea on happiness

  • True happiness is not found in human achievements

True happiness is not found in riches or well-being, in human fame or power, or in any human achievement – however beneficial it may be – such as science, technology, and art, or indeed in any creature, but in God alone, the source of every good and of all love. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 1723)

  • Only in God will man will find the happiness that he never stops searching for

The desire for God is written in the human heart, because man is created by God and for God; and God never ceases to draw man to himself. Only in God will he find the truth and happiness he never stops searching for. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 27)

…judges Francis’ idea of the Roman Curia

  • The Church of Rome, base and foundation of the other Churches

Particular Churches are fully catholic through their communion with one of them, the Church of Rome ‘which presides in charity’ (St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Rom. 1, 1: Apostolic Fathers, II/2, 192; cf. LG 13). ‘For with this church, by reason of its pre-eminence, the whole Church, that is the faithful everywhere, must necessarily be in accord’ (Saint Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 3, 3, 2; Cf. Vatican Council I DS 3057). Indeed, ‘from the incarnate Word’s descent to us, all Christian churches everywhere have held and hold the great Church that is here [at Rome] to be their only basis and foundation since, according to the Savior’s promise, the gates of hell have never prevailed against her’ (St. Maximus the Confessor, Opuscula theo.: PG 91 137-140). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 834)

…judges Francis’ ideas on the Old Covenant and Judaism

  • It is an offense to God not to fix one’s eyes entirely upon Christ

Christ, the Son of God made man, is the Father’s one, perfect and unsurpassable Word. In him he has said everything; there will be no other word than this one. Saint John of the Cross, among others, commented strikingly on Hebrews 1:1-2:In giving us his Son, his only Word (for he possesses no other), he spoke everything to us at once in this sole Word – and he has no more to say… because what he spoke before to the prophets in parts, he has now spoken all at once by giving us the All Who is His Son. Any person questioning God or desiring some vision or revelation would be guilty not only of foolish behavior but also of offending him, by not fixing his eyes entirely upon Christ and by living with the desire for some other novelty.’  (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 65)

  • The final Coming of Christ is linked to the Recognition of the Messiah by all of Israel, of which a part is hardened in incredulity

 The glorious Messiah’s coming is suspended at every moment of history until his recognition by “all Israel”, for “a hardening has come upon part of Israel” in their “unbelief” toward Jesus. Saint Peter says to the Jews of Jerusalem after Pentecost: “Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and that he may send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus, whom heaven must receive until the time for establishing all that God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets from of old. Saint Paul echoes him: “For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead? The ‘full inclusion’ of the Jews in the Messiah’s salvation, in the wake of ‘the full number of the Gentiles’, will enable the People of God to achieve “the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ”, in which “God may be all in all”. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 674)

…judges Francis’ ideas on all being children of God

  • One Must be Born of the Water and the Spirit in Order to Convert

 Through Baptism the Christian is sacramentally assimilated to Jesus, who in his own baptism anticipates his death and resurrection. The Christian must enter into this mystery of humble self-abasement and repentance, go down into the water with Jesus in order to rise with him, be reborn of water and the Spirit so as to become the Father’s beloved son in the Son and “walk in newness of life” (Rm 6:4). (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 537)

  •  Baptism Distinguishes Us From All Other Religious Groups

The People of God is marked by characteristics that clearly distinguish it from all other religious, ethnic, political, or cultural groups found in history: It is the People of God: God is not the property of any one people. But he acquired a people for himself from those who previously were not a people:  “a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation.” (1 Pet 2:9) One becomes a member of this people not by a physical birth, but by being “born anew”, “a birth of water and the Spirit” (Jn 3:3-5) that is, by faith in Christ, and Baptism.  (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 782)

…judges Francis’ ideas on whether the Lord always Pardons..

  • The Sacrament which makes the evangelical call to conversion present

It is called the sacrament of conversion because it makes sacramentally present Jesus’ call to conversion, the first step in returning to the Father from whom one has strayed by sin.
It is called the sacrament of Penance, since it consecrates the Christian sinner’s personal and ecclesial steps of conversion, penance, and satisfaction. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1423)

  • After pardon, the necessity to expiate the sin follows

 Raised up from sin, the sinner must still recover his full spiritual health by doing something more to make amends for the sin: he must “make satisfaction for” or “expiate” his sins. This satisfaction is also called “penance”. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1459) 

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