Council of Trent…

 

…judges Francis’ idea on union in the Catholic Church

  • Christ instituted the Eucharist so that we be united by the closest bond without schisms among us

He wished, furthermore, that this be a pledge of our future glory and of everlasting happiness, and thus be a symbol of that one ‘body’ of which He Himself is the ‘head’ (1Cor 11:23 Eph 5:23), and to which He wished us to be united, as members, by the closest bond of faith, hope, and charity, that we might ‘all speak the same thing and there might be no schisms among us’ (cf. 1Cor 1:10). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1638. Julius III, Council of Trent, Session XIII, October 11, 1551)

…judges Francis’ defense of the Jovinian heresy

  • If anyone says that the marriage state is to be placed above the state of virginity, let him be anathema

Canon X: If anyone saith, that the marriage state is to be placed above the state of virginity, or of celibacy, and that it is not better and more blessed to remain in virginity, or in celibacy, than to be united in matrimony; let him be anathema (cf. Mt 19:11 ; 1Co 7:25, 1Co 7:38: 1Co 7:40) (Denzinger Hünermann 1810. Council of Trent, The Sacrament of Marriage, Session XXIV, Canon X)

…judges Francis’ idea on Christian marriage realized in a partial and analogous way by adultery

  • Anathema: whoever denies that any new convivence after separation from the legitimate spouse is adultery

If anyone says that the Church errs, inasmuch as she has taught and still teaches that in accordance with evangelical and apostolic doctrine (Mt 10:1; 1Co 7) the bond of matrimony cannot be dissolved because of adultery of one of the married persons, and that both, or even the innocent one, who has given no occasion for adultery, cannot during the lifetime of the other contract another marriage, and that he, who after the dismissal of the adulteress shall marry another, is guilty of adultery, and that she also, who after the dismissal of the adulterer shall marry another: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1807. Council of Trent, Session XXIV, Doctrine concerning the Sacrament of Marriage, November 11, 1563)

…judges Francis’ idea on Judas being a poor, penitent man

  • Contrition is a sorrow of the soul and a detestation of sin committed

Contrition, which has the first place among the aforementioned acts of the penitent, is a sorrow of the soul and a detestation of sin committed, with a determination of not sinning in the future. This feeling of contrition is, moreover, necessary at all times to obtain the forgiveness of sins, and thus for a person who has fallen after baptism it especially prepares for the remission of sins, if it is united with trust in divine mercy and with the desire of performing the other things required to receive this sacrament correctly. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1676. Council of Trent, Session XIV, ch. 4, Contrition, November 25, 1551)

…judges Francis’ idea that it is no longer necessary to declare one’s sins to a confessor to be pardoned

  • The Church has always understood that the complete confession of sins was also instituted by our Lord

From the institution of the sacrament of penance as already explained the universal Church has always understood that the complete confession of sins was also instituted by our Lord, (Jas 5:16; Jn 1:9), and by divine law is necessary for all who have fallen after baptism [can. 7], because our Lord Jesus Christ, when about to ascend from earth to heaven, left behind Him priests as His own vicars (Mt 16:19; Mt 18:18; Jn 20:23), as rulers and judges, to whom all the mortal sins into which the faithful of Christ may have fallen should be brought, so that they in virtue of the power of the keys may pronounce the sentence of remission or retention of sins. For it is evident that priests could not have exercised this judgment without a knowledge of the matter, nor could they indeed have observed justice in imposing penalties, if the faithful had declared their sins in general only, and not specifically and one by one. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1679. Council of Trent, Session XIV, Session XIII, Ch. 5, Confession, October 11, 1551)

  • Condemned: those who maintain that the parts of the Sacrament of Penance (one of them being confession) are the terrors of conscience and faith

The holy Council, while recording these matters regarding the parts and effect of this sacrament, condemns the opinions of those who maintain that the parts of penance are the terrors of conscience and faith [can. 4]. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1675. Council of Trent, Session XIV, Session XIII, Ch. 3, The Parts and Fruits of the Sacrament of Penance, October 11, 1551)

  • Anathema: to deny that contrition, confession, and satisfaction are required for the full and perfect remission of sins

If anyone denies that for the full and perfect remission of sins there are three acts required on the part of the penitent, as it were, the matter of the sacrament of penance, namely contrition, confession, and satisfaction, which are called the three parts of penance; or says, that there are only two parts of penance, namely the terrors of a troubled conscience because of the consciousness of sin, and the faith received from the Gospel or from absolution, by which one believes that his sins have been forgiven him through Christ: let him be anathema [cf. no. 896 ]. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1704. Council of Trent, Session XIV, Canons on the Sacrament of Penance, Can. 4, November 25, 1551)

  • Anathema: to say that in the Sacrament of Penance it is not necessary, by divine law, to confess each and all mortal sins

If anyone says that in the sacrament of penance it is not necessary by divine law for the remission of sins to confess each and all mortal sins, of which one has remembrance after a due and diligent examination, even secret ones and those which are against the two last precepts of the decalogue, and the circumstances which alter the nature of sin; but that this confession is useful only for the instruction and consolation of the penitent, and formerly was observed only for imposing a canonical satisfaction; or says, that they who desire to confess all their sins wish to leave nothing to be pardoned by divine mercy; or, finally, that it is not lawful to confess venial sins: let him be anathema [cf. n. 899-901] (Denzinger-Hünermann 1707. Council of Trent, Session XIV, Canons on the Sacrament of Penance, Can. 7, November 25, 1551)

  • Those who knowingly conceal certain sins, lay nothing before the divine bounty for forgiveness

But since all mortal sins, even those of thought, make men children of wrath (Eph 2:3) and enemies of God, it is necessary to ask pardon for all of them from God by an open and humble confession. While, therefore, the faithful of Christ strive to confess all sins which occur to their memory, they undoubtedly lay all of them before the divine mercy to be forgiven [can. 7]. While those who do otherwise and knowingly conceal certain sins, lay nothing before the divine bounty for forgiveness by the priest. ‘For if one who is ill is ashamed to make known his wound to the physician, the physician does not remedy what he does not know.’ Furthermore, it is gathered that those circumstances also must be explained in confession, which alter the species of the sin, [can. 7], because without them the sins themselves are neither honestly revealed by the penitents, nor are they known to the judges, and it would not be possible for them to judge rightly the gravity of the crimes and to impose the punishment which is proper to those penitents. Hence it is unreasonable to teach that these circumstances have been conjured up by idle men, or that one circumstance only must be confessed, namely to have sinned against a brother. But it is also impious to say that a confession, which is ordered to be made in this manner [can. 8] is impossible, or to call it a torture of conscience; for it is clear that in the Church nothing else is exacted of the penitents than that each one, after he has carefully examined himself and searched all the nooks and recesses of his conscience, confess those sins by which he recalls that he has mortally offended his Lord and God […] But, truly, the difficulty of such confession and the shame of disclosing the sins might appear a burdensome matter indeed, if it were not alleviated by so many and such great advantages and consolations which are most certainly bestowed by absolution upon all those who approach this sacrament worthily. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1680-1681.1682. Council of Trent, Session XIV, October 11, Confession, Ch. 5, 1551)

…judges Francis’ idea on conversion of the papacy

  • To affirm that all are endowed with equal spiritual power disarranges the ecclesiastical hierarchy

But if anyone should affirm that all Christians without distinction are priests of the New Testament, or that they are all endowed among themselves with an equal spiritual power, he seems to do nothing else than disarrange [can. 6] the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which is ‘as an army set in array’ (cf. Ct 6:3), just as if, contrary to the teaching of blessed Paul, all were apostles, all prophets, all evangelists, all pastors, all doctors (cf. 1Cor 12:29, Eph 4:11). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1767. Council of Trent, Session XXIII, Doctrine on the Sacrament of Orders, July 15, 1563)

…judges Francis’ idea on confession

  • Priests are the vicars of Jesus Christ when they pronounce the sentence of remission or retention of sins

From the institution of the sacrament of penance as already explained the universal Church has always understood that the complete confession of sins was also instituted by our Lord, (Jas 5:16 Jn 1:9), and by divine law is necessary for all who have fallen after baptism [can. 7], because our Lord Jesus Christ, when about to ascend from earth to heaven, left behind Him priests as His own vicars (Mt 16:19, Mt 18:18, Jn 20:23), as rulers and judges, to whom all the mortal sins into which the faithful of Christ may have fallen should be brought, so that they in virtue of the power of the keys may pronounce the sentence of remission or retention of sins. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1679. Council of Trent, Session XIII, Doctrine on the Sacrament of penance, October 11, 1551)

  • Even priests who are bound by mortal sin exercise as ministers of Christ the office of forgiving sins

It also teaches that even priests who are bound by mortal sin exercise as ministers of Christ the office of forgiving sins by virtue of the Holy Spirit conferred in ordination, and that they are of an erroneous opinion who contend that this power does not exist in bad priests. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1684. Council of Trent, Session XIV, Doctrine on the Sacrament of Penance, Ch. 6, November 25, 1551)

…judges Francis’ idea on Christians and Muslims sharing the same points

  • If anyone should not accept the Scriptures as sacred and canonical, let him be anathema

If anyone, however, should not accept the said books as sacred and canonical, entire with all their parts, as they were wont to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin Vulgate edition, and if both knowingly and deliberately he should condemn the aforesaid traditions let him be anathema. Let all, therefore, understand in what order and in what manner the said Synod, after having laid the foundation of the confession of Faith, will proceed, and what testimonies and authorities it will mainly use in confirming dogmas, and in restoring morals in the Church. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1504-1505. Council of Trent, Session IV, Decree about Canonical Scriptures, April 8, 1546)

…judges Francis’ idea on obtaining spiritual fruits in other religions

  • Without the justice of Christ, human effort is of no use in meriting eternal life

If anyone shall say that divine grace through Christ Jesus is given for this only, that man may more easily be able to live justly and merit eternal life, as if by free will without grace he were able to do both, though with difficulty and hardship: let him be anathema […] If anyone shall say that men are justified without the justice of Christ by which He merited for us, or that by that justice itself they are formally just: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1552.1560. Council of Trent, Canons on justification, January 13, 1547)

…judges Francis’ idea on Grace

  • Through the merit of Christ’s passion, humans receive grace, whereby they are made just

But although Christ died for all (2Cor 5:15), yet not all receive the benefit of His death, but those only to whom the merit of His passion is communicated. For, as indeed men would not be born unjust, if they were not born through propagation of the seed of Adam, since by that propagation they contract through him, in conception, injustice as their own, so unless they were born again in Christ, they never would be justified [can. 2 and 10], since in that new birth through the merit of His passion, the grace, whereby they are made just, is bestowed upon them. For this benefit the Apostle exhorts us always to ‘give thanks to the Father who has made us worthy to be partakers of the lot of the saints in light’ (Col 1:12), ‘and has delivered us from the power of darkness, and has translated us into the kingdom of the Son of his love, in whom we have redemption and remission of sins’ (Col 1:13 ff). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1523. Council of Trent, Session VI, Decree on justification, January 13, 1547Denzinger 795)

  • Grace is lost by any mortal sin

Against the crafty genius of certain men also, who ‘by pleasing speeches and good words seduce the hearts of the innocent’ (Rom 16:18), it must be maintained that the grace of justification, although received, is lost not only by infidelity [can. 27], whereby even faith itself is lost, but also by any other mortal sin, although faith be not lost [can. 28]. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1544. Council of Trent, Session VI, ch. XV, Decree on justification, January 13, 1547)

  • Though far removed from the senses, God showed the reality of grace by the evidence of miracles

Lest on this subject any doubt should exist in the minds of the faithful, God, in the abundance of His mercy, was pleased, from the moment when the Sacraments began to be administered, to manifest by the evidence of miracles the effects which they operate interiorly in the soul. (This He did) in order that we may most firmly believe that the same effects, although far removed from the senses, are always inwardly produced. To say nothing of the fact that at the Baptism of the Redeemer in the Jordan the heavens were opened and the Holy Ghost appeared in the form of a dove, to teach us that when we are washed in the sacred font His grace is infused into our souls – to omit this. (Council of Trent, 2000)

…judges Francis’ idea on Catholic Faith and Lutheran belief

  • The Eucharist was instituted by Christ to maintain the closest bond of faith, hope, and charity, so that there be no schisms

He wished, furthermore, that this be a pledge of our future glory and of everlasting happiness, and thus be a symbol of that one ‘body’ of which He Himself is the ‘head’ (1Cor 11:23 Eph 5:23), and to which He wished us to be united, as members, by the closest bond of faith, hope, and charity, that we might ‘all speak the same thing and there might be no schisms among us’ (cf. 1Cor 1:10). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1638. Julius III, Council of Trent, Session XIII, October 11, 1551)

…judges Francis’ idea on the ‘Bread of Life’

  • With firmness of faith we believe in the Eucharist: Our Lord Jesus Christ gave us His ‘own flesh to eat’ (Jn 6:48)

And finally this holy Synod with paternal affection admonishes, exhorts, entreats, and beseeches, ‘through the bowels of the mercy of our God’ (Lk 1:78), that each and all, who are classed under the Christian name, will now finally agree and be of the same opinion in this ‘sign of unity,’ in this ‘bond of charity,’ in this symbol of concord, and that mindful of so great a majesty and such boundless love of our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave His own beloved soul as the price of our salvation, and gave us His ‘own flesh to eat’ (Jn 6:48 ff.), they may believe and venerate these sacred mysteries of His body and blood with that constancy and firmness of faith, with that devotion of soul, that piety and worship, as to be able to receive frequently that ‘supersubstantial bread’ (Mt 6:11), and that it may be to them truly the life of the soul and the perpetual health of mind, that being invigorated by the strength thereof, after the journey of this miserable pilgrimage, they may be able to arrive in their heavenly country to eat without any veil that same bread of angels (Ps 77:25) which they now eat under the sacred veils. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1649. Julius III, Council of Trent, Session XIII, October 2, 1551)

  • Jesus wished that this sacrament be received as the spiritual food of souls

Our Savior, therefore, when about to depart from this world to the Father, instituted this sacrament in which He poured forth, as it were, the riches of His divine love for men, ‘making a remembrance of his wonderful works’ (Ps 110:4), and He commanded us in the consuming of it to cherish His ‘memory’ (1Cor 11:24), and ‘to show forth his death until He come’ to judge the world (1Cor 11:23). But He wished that this sacrament be received as the spiritual food of souls (Mt 26:26), by which they may be nourished and strengthened [can. 5], living by the life of Him who said: ‘He who eateth me, the same also shall live by me’ (Jn 6:58), and as an antidote, whereby we may be freed from daily faults and be preserved from mortal sins. He wished, furthermore, that this be a pledge of our future glory and of everlasting happiness, and thus be a symbol of that one ‘body’ of which He Himself is the ‘head’ (1Cor 11:23, Eph 5:23), and to which He wished us to be united, as members, by the closest bond of faith, hope, and charity, that we might ‘all speak the same thing and there might be no schisms among us’ (cf. 1Cor 1:10). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1638. Julius III, Council of Trent, Session XIII, October 2, 1551)

…judges Francis’ idea on adulterine unions

  • Anathema for those who deny that a new union after separation is adultery

If anyone says that the Church errs, inasmuch as she has taught and still teaches that in accordance with evangelical and apostolic doctrine (Mt 10:1, 1Cor 7) the bond of matrimony cannot be dissolved because of adultery of one of the married persons, and that both, or even the innocent one, who has given no occasion for adultery, cannot during the lifetime of the other contract another marriage, and that he, who after the dismissal of the adulteress shall marry another, is guilty of adultery, and that she also, who after the dismissal of the adulterer shall marry another: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1807.Council of Trent Session XXIV, Doctrine concerning the Sacrament of Marriage, November 11, 1563)

…judges Francis’ idea on good-will replacing theological investigation

  • All Christians indiscriminately are not endowed with an equal spiritual power …how much more the Pope

And if any one affirm, that all Christians indiscriminately are priests of the New Testament, or that they are all mutually endowed with an equal spiritual power, he clearly does nothing but confound the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which is as an army set in array; as if, contrary to the doctrine of blessed Paul, all were apostles, all prophets, all evangelists, all pastors, all doctors. (Council of Trent. Session XXIII, Ch. 4, Doctrine on the Ecclesiastical hierarchy and Holy Orders, July 15, 1563)

…judges Francis’ vision on the divorced who re-marry

  • Anyone in mortal sin is a child of wrath and an enemy of God

But since all mortal sins, even those of thought, make men children of wrath (Ep 2,3) and enemies of God, it is necessary to ask pardon for all of them from God by an open and humble confession. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1680. Council of Trent, Session XIII, October 11, 1551)

  • Anathema: those who deny that the bond of matrimony cannot be dissolved even after adultery of one of the married persons

If anyone says that the Church errs, inasmuch as she has taught and still teaches that in accordance with evangelical and apostolic doctrine the bond of matrimony cannot be dissolved because of adultery of one of the married persons, and that both, or even the innocent one, who has given no occasion for adultery, cannot during the lifetime of the other contract another marriage, and that he, who after the dismissal of the adulteress shall marry another, is guilty of adultery, and that she also, who after the dismissal of the adulterer shall marry another: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1807. Council of Trent, Session XXIV, Doctrine Concerning the Sacrament of Matrimony, November 11, 1563)

…judges Francis’ idea on divorcees as Godparents

  • Christ Himself merited the grace of indissoluble union for us by His passion

The first parent of the human race expressed the perpetual and indissoluble bond of matrimony under the influence of the divine Spirit, when he said: ‘This now is bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh.’ […] But that by this bond two only are united and joined together, Christ the Lord taught more openly, when referring to those last words, as having been uttered by God, He said: ‘Therefore now they are not two, but one flesh’ (Mt 19:6), and immediately ratified the strength of this same bond, pronounced by Adam so long ago in these words: ‘What therefore God has joined together, let no man put asunder’ (Mt 19:6 Mc 10:9). But the grace which was to perfect that natural love, and confirm the indissoluble union, and sanctify those united in marriage, Christ Himself, institutor and perfector of the venerable sacraments, merited for us by His passion. (Denzinger-Hünermann.1797-1799. Council of Trent, Session XXIV, November 11, 1563)

  • Heresy, grievous cohabitation or voluntary absence from the spouse does not dissolve matrimony

If anyone says that the bond of matrimony can be dissolved because of heresy, or grievous cohabitation, or voluntary absence from the spouse: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1805. Council of Trent, Session XXIV, November 11, 1563)

  • If anyone says that the Church errs in teaching, in accordance with Apostolic doctrine, that the bond of matrimony cannot be dissolved, let him be anathema

If anyone says that the Church errs, inasmuch as she has taught and still teaches that in accordance with evangelical and apostolic doctrine (Mt 10:1; 1Cor 7:1) the bond of matrimony cannot be dissolved because of adultery of one of the married persons, and that both, or even the innocent one, who has given no occasion for adultery, cannot during the lifetime of the other contract another marriage, and that he, who after the dismissal of the adulteress shall marry another, is guilty of adultery, and that she also, who after the dismissal of the adulterer shall marry another: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1807. Council of Trent, Session XXIV, November 11, 1563)

  • Matrimonial causes are subject to ecclesiastical judges

If anyone says that matrimonial causes do not belong to ecclesiastical judges: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1812. Council of Trent, Session XXIV, November 11, 1563)

…judges Francis’ words in his first appearance

  • To affirm that all Christians are endowed with an equal spiritual power is to disarrange the ecclesiastical hierarchy

But if anyone should affirm that all Christians without distinction are priests of the New Testament, or that they are all endowed among themselves with an equal spiritual power, he seems to do nothing else than disarrange [can. 6] the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which is ‘as an army set in array’ (cf. Ct 6,3), just as if, contrary to the teaching of blessed Paul, all were apostles, all prophets, all evangelists, all pastors, all doctors (cf. 1Cor 12:29; Eph 4:11). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1767. Council of Trent Session XXIII, Doctrine on the Sacrament of Orders, July 15, 1563)

…judges Francis’ idea on our sins drawing us close to Jesus

  • No one should flatter himself because of faith alone, when he suffer not with Christ

And so no one should flatter himself because of faith alone [can. 9, 19, 20], thinking that by faith alone he is made an heir and will obtain the inheritance, even though he suffer not with Christ ‘that he may be also glorified’ (Rom 8:17). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1538. Council of Trent, Session VI, January 13, 1547)

…judges Francis’ idea on the origin of the Psalms

  • The interpretation of Sacred Scripture should be ruled according to the one standard of the Church’s belief

We said above, that it has always been the custom of Catholics, and still is, to prove the true faith in these two ways; first by the authority of the Divine Canon, and next by the tradition of the Catholic Church. Not that the Canon alone does not of itself suffice for every question, but seeing that the more part, interpreting the divine words according to their own persuasion, take up various erroneous opinions, it is therefore necessary that the interpretation of divine Scripture should be ruled according to the one standard of the Church’s belief, especially in those articles on which the foundations of all Catholic doctrine rest. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1507. Council of Trent, Session IV, April 8, 1546)

…judges Francis’ idea on doing good

  • Christ died for all, but not all receive the benefit of His death – only to whom the merit of His passion is communicated

But although Christ died for all (2Co 5:15), yet not all receive the benefit of His death, but those only to whom the merit of His passion is communicated. For, as indeed […] unless they were born again in Christ, they never would be justified [can. 2 and 10], since in that new birth through the merit of His passion, the grace, whereby they are made just, is bestowed upon them. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1523. Council of Trent, Session VI: Decree on Justification, January 13, 1547)

  • Anathema: whoever says that man can live justly and merit eternal life without grace

Can. 2: If anyone shall say that divine grace through Christ Jesus is given for this only, that man may more easily be able to live justly and merit eternal life, as if by free will without grace he were able to do both, though with difficulty and hardship: let him be anathema [cf. n. 795, 809]. […] Can. 10: If anyone shall say that men are justified without the justice of Christ by which He merited for us, or that by that justice itself they are formally just: let him be anathema [cf. n. 798, 799]. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1552, 1560. Council of Trent, Session VI: Decree on Justification, Canons, January 13, 1547)

…judges Francis’ idea on sin and mercy

  • One must detest the offense toward God and amend perversity with penance

Penance has indeed been necessary for all men, who at any time whatever have stained themselves with mortal sin, in order to attain grace and justice, even for those who have desired to be cleansed by the sacrament of baptism, so that their perversity being renounced and amended, they might detest so great an offense against God with a hatred of sin and a sincere sorrow of heart. Therefore, the Prophet says: ‘Be converted and do penance for all your iniquities; and iniquity shall not be your ruin’ (Ez 18,30). The Lord also said: ‘Except you do penance, you shall all likewise perish’ (Lc 13,3). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1669. Council of Trent, Session XIV, November 25, 1551)

  • True contrition includes not only cessation from sin, but also hatred for the old life

Contrition, which has the first place among the aforementioned acts of the penitent, is a sorrow of the soul and a detestation of sin committed, with a determination of not sinning in the future. This feeling of contrition is, moreover, necessary at all times to obtain the forgiveness of sins, and thus for a person who has fallen after baptism it especially prepares for the remission of sins, if it is united with trust in divine mercy and with the desire of performing the other things required to receive this sacrament correctly. The holy Synod, therefore, declares that this contrition includes not only cessation from sin and a resolution and a beginning of a new life, but also hatred of the old, according to this statement: ‘Cast away from you all your transgressions, by which you have transgressed, and make to yourselves a new heart and a new spirit’ (Ez 18,31). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1676. Council of Trent, Session XIV, November 25, 1551)

  • To obtain pardon, many tears and labors are necessary on our part

We can in no way arrive by the sacrament of penance without many tears and labors on our part, for divine justice demands this, so that penance has justly been called by the holy Fathers, ‘a laborious kind of baptism.’ (Denzinger-Hünermann 1672. Council of Trent, Session XIV, November 25, 1551)

…judges Francis’ idea on communion to divorced in second union

  • No one conscious of mortal sin should approach the Holy Eucharist, however contrite he may seem to himself

Now ecclesiastical usage declares that this examination is necessary, that no one conscious of mortal sin, however contrite he may seem to himself, should approach the Holy Eucharist without a previous sacramental confession. This, the holy Synod has decreed, is always to be observed by all Christians, even by those priests on whom by their office it may be incumbent to celebrate, provided the recourses of a confessor be not lacking to them. But if in an urgent necessity a priest should celebrate without previous confession, let him confess as soon as possible [see n. 1138 ff.]. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1647. Council of Trent, Session XIII, October 11, 1551)

  • Whoever publicly asserts that one may receive communion in mortal sin is excommunicated

If anyone says that faith alone is sufficient preparation for receiving the sacrament of the most Holy Eucharist: let him be anathema. And that so great a Sacrament may not be unworthily received, and therefore unto death and condemnation, this holy Council ordains and declares that sacramental confession must necessarily be made beforehand by those whose conscience is burdened by mortal sin, however contrite they may consider themselves. If anyone moreover teaches the contrary or preaches or obstinately asserts, or even publicly by disputation shall presume to defend the contrary, by that fact itself he is excommunicated. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1661. Julius III, Council of Trent, Session XIV, October 11, 1551)

…judges Francis’ idea on First Holy Communion

  • Immediately after the consecration, Our Lord is truly present under the Eucharistic species

This belief has always been in the Church of God, that immediately after the consecration the true body of our Lord and His true blood together with His soul and divinity exist under the species of bread and wine; […] Therefore, it is very true that as much is contained under either species as under both. For Christ whole and entire exists under the species of bread and under any part whatsoever of that species, likewise the whole (Christ) is present under the species of wine and under its parts. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1640, Council of Trent, Session XIII, Decree on the Most Holy Eucharist, October 11, 1551)

  • The negation of the truth regarding the Body and Blood of Christ is disgraceful

First of all the holy Synod teaches and openly and simply professes that in the nourishing sacrament of the Holy Eucharist after the consecration of the bread and wine our Lord Jesus Christ, true God and man, is truly, really, and substantially [can. I] contained under the species of those sensible things. […] it is a most disgraceful thing for some contentious and wicked men to distort into fictitious and imaginary figures of speech, by which the real nature of the flesh and blood of Christ is denied, contrary to the universal sense of the Church, which, recognizing with an ever grateful and recollecting mind this most excellent benefit of Christ, as the pillar and ground of truth (1Tim 3:15), has detested these falsehoods, devised by impious men, as satanical. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1636, 1637. Council of Trent, Session XIII, October 11, 1551)

  • The Sacrament instituted with the purpose of maintaining unity without schisms

He wished, furthermore, that this be a pledge of our future glory and of everlasting happiness, and thus be a symbol of that one ‘body’ of which He Himself is the ‘head’ (1 Cor 11:23 Eph 5:23), and to which He wished us to be united, as members, by the closest bond of faith, hope, and charity, that we might ‘all speak the same thing and there might be no schisms among us’ (cf. 1 Cor 1:10). (Denzinger-Hunermann 1638. Council of Trent, Session XIII, Decree on the Most Holy Eucharist, October 11, 1551)

  • To deny the substance of the Eucharist is to precipitate oneself into excommunication

If anyone denies that in the sacrament of the most holy Eucharist there are truly, really, and substantially contained the body and blood together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and therefore the whole Christ, but shall say that He is in it as by a sign or figure, or force, let him be anatema. […] If anyone moreover teaches the contrary or preaches or obstinately asserts, or even publicly by disputation shall presume to defend the contrary, by that fact itself he is excommunicated. (Denzinger-Hunermann 1651, Council of Trent, Session XIII, Decree on the Sacrament of the Eucharist, October 11, 1551)

  • The faithful are prohibited to believe, teach or preach regarding the Eucharist in a different way than that proclaimed by the Church

The sacred and holy ecumenical and general Synod of Trent […] namely to publish the true and ancient doctrine concerning faith and the sacraments, and to provide a remedy for all the heresies and other very serious troubles by which the Church of God is at present wretchedly agitated and torn into many different factions, yet from the beginning has had this especially among its desires, to uproot the ‘cockles’ of execrable errors and schisms, which the enemy in these troubled times of our has ‘sown’ (Mt 13:25 ff.), in the doctrine of the faith, in the use and worship of the sacred Eucharist, which our Savior, moreover, left in His Church as a symbol of that unity and charity with which He wished all Christians to be mutually bound and united. Therefore, this same sacred and holy synod, transmitting that sound and genuine doctrine of this venerable and divine sacrament of the Eucharist, which the Catholic Church, instructed by our Lord Jesus Christ himself and by his Apostles, and taught by the ‘Holy Spirit who day by day brings to her all truth’ (Jn 14:26), has always held and will preserve even to the end of time, forbids all the faithful of Christ hereafter to venture to believe, teach, or preach concerning the Most Holy Eucharist otherwise than is explained and defined in this present decree. (Denzinger-Hunermann 1651, Council of Trent, Session XIII, Decree on the Sacrament of the Eucharist, October 11, 1551)

…judges Francis’ idea on God’s presence in a sinner’s life

  • Who are the ‘friends of God’?

Having, therefore, been thus justified and having been made the ‘friends of God’ and ‘his domestics’ (Jn 15:15; Eph 2:19), ‘advancing from virtue to virtue’ (Ps 83:8), ‘they are renewed’ (as the Apostle says) ‘from day to day’ (2Cor 4:16), that is, by mortifying the members of their flesh (Col 3:5), and by ‘presenting them as instruments of justice’ (Rom 6:13,19), unto sanctification through the observance of the commandments of God and of the Church. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1535, Paul III, Council of Trent, Session VI, Decree on Justification, January 13, 1547)

  • God has friends and enemies

Justification itself follows this disposition or preparation, which is not merely remission of sins [can. 11], but also the sanctification and renewal of the interior man through the voluntary reception of the grace and gifts, whereby an unjust man becomes a just man, and from being an enemy becomes a friend, that he may be ‘an heir according to hope of life everlasting’ (Tt 3:7). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1528, Paul III, Council of Trent, Session VI, Decree on Justification, January 13, 1547)

  • He who loves God keeps His word and His Commandments

For they who are the sons of God, love Christ: ‘but they who love him, (as He Himself testifies) keep his words’ (Jn 14:23), which indeed with the divine help they can do. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1536, Paul III, Council of Trent, session VI, Decree on Justification, January 13, 1547)

  • Sinners are ‘children of wrath’ and ‘enemies of God’

All mortal sins, even those of thought, make men children of wrath (Eph 2:3) and enemies of God. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1680, Julius III – Council of Trent, session XIV)

…judges Francis’ idea on all being saved

  • Christ died for all, yet not all receive the benefit of His death

But although Christ died for all (2Cor 5:15), yet not all receive the benefit of His death, but those only to whom the merit of His passion is communicated. For […], unless they were born again in Christ, they never would be justified [can. 2 and 10], since in that new birth through the merit of His passion, the grace, whereby they are made just, is bestowed upon them. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1523. Council of Trent, Session VI, ch. 3, Decree on Justification, January 13, 1547)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Pope

  • To affirm that Christians are endowed with equal spiritual power is to disarrange the ecclesiastical hierarchy

But if anyone should affirm that all Christians without distinction are priests of the New Testament, or that they are all endowed among themselves with an equal spiritual power, he seems to do nothing else than disarrange [can. 6] the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which is ‘as an army set in array’ (cf. Song 6:3), just as if, contrary to the teaching of blessed Paul, all were apostles, all prophets, all evangelists, all pastors, all doctors (cf. 1Cor 12:29 Eph 4:11). (Council of Trent, Session XXIII, The Doctrine on the Sacrament of Orders, Ch. 4, The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy and Ordination, July 15, 1563)

…judges Francis’ idea on the access to the sacraments

  • To receive the Eucharist it is necessary to be in the state of grace

Now ecclesiastical usage declares that this examination is necessary, that no one conscious of mortal sin, however contrite he may seem to himself, should approach the Holy Eucharist without a previous sacramental confession. This, the holy Synod has decreed, is always to be observed by all Christians, even by those priests on whom by their office it may be incumbent to celebrate, provided the recourses of a confessor be not lacking to them. But if in an urgent necessity a priest should celebrate without previous confession, let him confess as soon as possible [see n. 1138 ff.]. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1647. Council of Trent, Session XIII, October 11, 1551)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Re-reading of the Gospel

  • Only the Church may validly interpret Scripture

Furthermore, in order to curb impudent clever persons, the synod decrees that no one who relies on his own judgment in matters of faith and morals, which pertain to the building up of Christian doctrine, and that no one who distorts the Sacred Scripture according to his own opinions, shall dare to interpret the said Sacred Scripture contrary to that sense which is held by holy mother Church, whose duty it is to judge regarding the true sense and interpretation of holy Scriptures. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1507. Council of Trent, session IV, Decree on the Sacred Books and the Traditions of the Apostles, April 8, 1546)

…judges Francis’ idea on Ascetism and silence in the Spiritual Exercises

  • Those pardoned should grow in virtue by means of mortification

Having, therefore, been thus justified and having been made the ‘friends of God’ and ‘his domestics’ (Jn 15:15, Eph 2:19), ‘advancing from virtue to virtue’ (Ps 83:8), ‘they are renewed’(as the Apostle says) ‘from day to day’ (2Co 4:16), that is, by mortifying the members of their flesh (Col 3:5), and by ‘presenting them as instruments of justice’ (Rom 6:13, Rom 6:19), unto sanctification through the observance of the commandments of God and of the Church; in this justice received through the grace of Christ ‘faith cooperating with good works’ (Jas 2:22), they increase and are further justified [can. 24 and 32], as it is written: ‘He that is just, let him be justified still’ (Apoc 22:11), and again: ‘Be not afraid to be justified even to death’ (Sir 18:22), and again: ‘You see, that by works a man is justified and not by faith only’ (Jas 2:24). (Denzinger-Hünermann 1535. The Council of Trent, Session VI, Ch. 10, January 13, 1547)

…judges Francis’ idea on all being children of God

  • Divine Adoption Cannot be Achieved Without Baptism

But though He died for all, yet all do not receive the benefit of His death, but those only to whom the merit of His passion is communicated […] In which words is given a brief description of the justification of the sinner, as being a translation from that state in which man is born a child of the first Adam, to the state of grace and of the adoption of the sons of God through the second Adam, Jesus Christ, our Savior. This translation however cannot, since promulgation of the Gospel, be effected except through the laver of regeneration or its desire, as it is written: Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. (Council of Trent. Chapter III, Session VI. Who are justified through Christ. A Brief Description of the Justification of the Sinner and its mode in the State of Grace. Celebrated on the thirteenth day of January, 1547 under Pope Paul III)

…judges Francis’ idea on whether the Lord always Pardons

  • Contrition unites sorrow of the soul, detestation of sin and purpose of amendment

Contrition, which has the first place among the aforementioned acts of the penitent, is a sorrow of the soul and a detestation of sin committed, with a determination of not sinning in the future. This feeling of contrition is, moreover, necessary at all times to obtain the forgiveness of sins, and thus for a person who has fallen after baptism it especially prepares for the remission of sins, if it is united with trust in divine mercy and with the desire of performing the other things required to receive this sacrament correctly. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1676. Council of Trent, section XIV. November 25, 1551. Doctrine about the Sacrament of Penance. Chap. 4: Contrition)

  • Satisfaction is a check for sin and a stimulus for a new life

For, without doubt, these satisfactions greatly restrain from sin, and as by a kind of rein act as a check, and make penitents more cautious and vigilant in the future; they also remove the remnants of sin, and destroy vicious habits acquired by living evilly through acts contrary to virtue. Neither was there ever in the Church of God any way considered more secure for warding off impending punishment by the Lord than that men perform these works of penance. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1690. Council of Trent, session XIV, November 25, 1551. Doctrine on the Sacrament of Penance, chap. 8. The Necessity and Fruit of Satisfaction)

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